http://www.freejapaneselessons.com/my_name_in_Japanese.cfm

http://www.freejapaneselessons.com/my_name_in_Japanese.cfm

http://japanese.about.com/

http://www.learn-japanese.info/

http://www.digitaldialects.com/Japanese.htm

http://www.linguanaut.com/japanese_alphabet.htm

http://www.branah.com/japanese

http://www.learn-japanese-adventure.com/japanese-characters.html

http://mylanguages.org/japanese_alphabet.php

 

Japanese Phrases

 

English

Japanese Phrases

Greeting

Hi!

こんにちは konnichiwa

Good morning!

おはようございます ohayoo gozai masu

Good afternoon!

こんにちは konnichiwa

Good evening!

こんばんは konbanwa

Welcome! (to greet someone)

ようこそ yookoso

Hello my friend!

こんにちは konnichiwa

How are you? (friendly)

元気? genki ?

How are you? (polite)

お元気ですか? o genki desu ka ?

I’m fine, thank you!

はい、元気です。 hai , genki desu .

And you? (friendly)

君は? kimi wa ?

And you? (polite)

あなたは? anata wa ?

Good

いい ii

Not so good

あまり良くないです。 amari yoku nai desu .

Long time no see

お久しぶりです。 o hisashiburi desu .

I missed you

寂しかったです。 sabishikat ta desu .

What’s new?

最近何かありました? saikin nani ka ari mashi ta ?

Nothing new

いいえ、別に iie , betsuni

Thank you (very much)!

どうも有難う御座います。 doomo arigatoo gozai masu .

You’re welcome! (for “thank you”)

どういたしまして dooitashimashite

My pleasure

いつでも itsu demo

Come in! (or: enter!)

どうぞ、入ってください。 doozo , hait te kudasai .

Make yourself at home!

どうぞ、お楽にしてください。 doozo , o raku ni shi te kudasai .

Farewell Expressions

Have a nice day!

よい一日を! yoi ichi nichi o !

Good night!

おやすみなさい oyasuminasai

Good night and sweet dreams!

おやすみなさい、いい夢、見てね! oyasuminasai , ii yume , mi te ne !

See you later!

では、またね! dewa , mata ne !

See you soon!

もうすぐ、会えるね! moosugu , aeru ne !

See you tomorrow!

では、また明日! dewa , mata ashita !

Good bye!

さようなら! sayoonara !

Have a good trip!

良い旅を! yoi tabi o !

I have to go

私は行かなければなりません watashi wa ika nakere ba nari mase n

I will be right back!

すぐ戻ります! sugu modori masu !

Holidays and Wishes

Good luck!

幸運を祈る! kooun o inoru !

Happy birthday!

お誕生日、おめでとう御座います! o tanjoo bi , omedetoo gozai masu !

Happy new year!

明けましておめでとうございます! ake mashi te omedetoo gozai masu !

Merry Christmas!

メリー・クリスマス! merii.kurisumasu !

Happy Thanksgiving!

良い感謝祭をお過ごしください! yoi kansha sai o osugoshi kudasai !

Happy Mother’s Day!

母の日、おめでとうございます! haha no hi , omedetoo gozai masu !

Congratulations!

おめでとうございます! omedetoo gozai masu !

Enjoy! (or: bon appetit)

どうぞ召し上がれ。 doozo meshiagare .

Bless you (when sneezing)

お大事に。 o daiji ni .

Best wishes!

ご多幸を祈る! go takoo o inoru !

Cheers! (or: to your health)

あなたの健康を祈って乾杯! anata no kenkoo o inot te kanpai !

Accept my best wishes

お祈り申し上げます。 oinori mooshiage masu .

How to Introduce Yourself

What’s your name?

お名前は何ですか。 o namae wa nani desu ka .

My name is (John Doe)

私はジョン・ドーです。 watashi wa jon.doo desu .

Nice to meet you!

どうぞよろしく! doozo yoroshiku !

Where are you from?

どこの出身ですか。 doko no shusshin desu ka .

I’m from (the U.S/ Japan)

(アメリカ・日本)です。 ( amerika . nippon ) desu .

I’m (American/ Japanese)

(アメリカ・日本)人です ( amerika . nippon ) jin desu

Where do you live?

お住まいはどちらですか。 o sumai wa dochira desu ka .

I live in (the U.S/ Japan)

(アメリカ・日本)に住んでいます。 ( amerika . nippon ) ni sun de i masu .

Do you like it here?

ここが好きですか。 koko ga suki desu ka .

Japan is a beautiful country

日本は美しい国です。 nippon wa utsukushii kuni desu .

What do you do for a living?

仕事は何をされているのですか。 shigoto wa nani o sa re te iru no desu ka .

I’m a (teacher/ student/ engineer)

(教師・学生・エンジニア)です。 ( kyooshi . gakusei . enjinia ) desu .

Do you speak (English/ Japanese)?

(英語・日本語)を話せますか。 ( eigo . nihongo ) o hanase masu ka .

Just a little

ちょっとだけです。 chotto dake desu .

I like Japanese

私は日本語が好きです。 watashi wa nihongo ga suki desu .

I’m trying to learn Japanese

私は日本語を学ぼうと努力しています。 watashi wa nihongo o manabo u to doryoku shi te i masu .

It’s a hard language

これは難しい言語です。 kore wa muzukashii gengo desu .

It’s an easy language

これは簡単な言語です。 kore wa kantan na gengo desu .

Oh! That’s good!

それはいいですね。 sore wa ii desu ne .

Can I practice with you?

あなたと練習していいですか。 anata to renshuu shi te ii desu ka .

I will try my best to learn

習得するため頑張ります。 shuutoku suru tame ganbari masu .

How old are you?

お幾つですか。 o ikutsu desu ka .

I’m (twenty one, thirty two) years old

(二十歳・三十二歳)です。 ( ni juu sai . san juu ni sai ) desu .

It was nice talking to you!

お話しできてよかったです。 ohanashi deki te yokat ta desu .

It was nice meeting you!

お会いできてよかったです。 o ai deki te yokat ta desu .

Mr…/ Mrs. …/ Miss…

。。。さん . . . san

This is my wife

妻です。 tsuma desu .

This is my husband

夫です。 otto desu .

Say hi to Thomas for me

トマスさんに宜しく。 tomasu san ni yoroshiku .

Romance and Love Phrases

Are you free tomorrow evening?

明日の夜、空いていますか。 ashita no yoru , ai te i masu ka .

I would like to invite you to dinner

タ食にお誘いしたいのですが ta shoku ni osasoi shi tai no desu ga

You look beautiful! (to a woman)

あなたはきれいね! anata wa kirei ne !

You have a beautiful name

いい名前ですね。 ii namae desu ne .

Can you tell me more about you?

あなたのことをもっと教えてください。 anata no koto o motto oshie te kudasai .

Are you married?

ご結婚されているのですか? go kekkon sa re te iru no desu ka ?

I’m single

独身です。 dokushin desu .

I’m married

結婚しています。 kekkon shi te i masu .

Can I have your phone number?

お電話番号を教えてくれませんか。 o denwa bangoo o oshie te kure mase n ka .

Can I have your email?

電子メールアドレスを教えてくれませんか。 denshi meeruadoresu o oshie te kure mase n ka .

Do you have any pictures of you?

あなたの写真、ありますか。 anata no shashin , ari masu ka .

Do you have children?

お子さんはいらっしゃいますか。 okosan wa irasshai masu ka .

Would you like to go for a walk?

散歩に行きますか。 sanpo ni iki masu ka .

I like you

あなたのことが好きです。 anata no koto ga suki desu .

I love you

愛しています。 aishi te i masu .

You’re very special!

あなたは特別です。 anata wa tokubetsu desu .

You’re very kind!

あなたはとても親切です。 anata wa totemo shinsetsu desu .

I’m very happy

大変うれしいです。 taihen ureshii desu .

Would you marry me?

結婚してくれる? kekkon shi te kureru ?

I’m just kidding

ほんの冗談です。 honno joodan desu .

I’m serious

本気ですよ。 honki desu yo .

My heart speaks the language of love

私の心は愛の言葉を話している。 watashi no kokoro wa ai no kotoba o hanashi te iru .

Solving a Misunderstanding

Sorry! (or: I beg your pardon!)

もう一度言っていただけますか。 mooichido it te itadake masu ka .

Sorry (for a mistake)

ごめんなさい。 gomennasai .

No problem!

問題ないです。 mondai nai desu .

Can you repeat please?

もう一度お願いできますか。 mooichido onegai deki masu ka .

Can you speak slowly?

ゆっくり話してくれませんか。 yukkuri hanashi te kure mase n ka .

Can you write it down?

書いてもらえますか。 kai te morae masu ka .

Did you understand what I said?

私の言うこと分かりますか。 watashi no iu koto wakari masu ka .

I don’t understand!

分かりません! wakari mase n !

I don’t know!

知りません! shiri mase n !

What’s that called in Japanese?

日本語でなんといいますか。 nihongo de nanto ii masu ka .

What does that word mean in English?

その言葉は英語でなんといいますか。 sono kotoba wa eigo de nanto ii masu ka .

How do you say “thanks” in Japanese?

Thank You」は日本語でなんといいますか。 ‘ Thank You ‘ wa nihongo de nanto ii masu ka .

What is this?

これは何ですか。 kore wa nani desu ka .

My Japanese is bad

私の日本語は下手です。 watashi no nihongo wa heta desu .

Don’t worry!

心配しないでください。 shinpai shi nai de kudasai .

I agree with you

賛成します。 sansei shi masu .

Is that right?

正しいですか。 tadashii desu ka .

Is that wrong?

正しくないですか。 tadashiku nai desu ka .

What should I say?

なんと言えばいいですか。 nanto ie ba ii desu ka .

I just need to practice

練習が必要です。 renshuu ga hitsuyoo desu .

Your Japanese is good

日本語が上手ですね。 nihongo ga joozu desu ne .

I have an accent

私は訛りがあります。 watashi wa namari ga ari masu .

You don’t have an accent

発音はきれいですね。 hatsuon wa kirei desu ne .

Asking for Directions

Excuse me! (before asking someone)

すみません sumimasen

I’m lost

道に迷ってしまいました。 michi ni mayot te shimai mashi ta .

Can you help me?

教えてくれませんか。 oshie te kure mase n ka .

Can I help you?

教えてあげましょうか。 oshie te age masho u ka .

I’m not from here

よそ者なので分かりません。 yosomono na node wakari mase n .

How can I get to (this place, this city)?

すみません、(ここ・このまち)にいきたいんですが sumimasen , ( koko . kono machi ) ni iki tai n desu ga

Go straight

真っ直ぐいってください。 massugu it te kudasai .

Then

それから sorekara

Turn left

左へ曲がってください hidari e magat te kudasai

Turn right

右へ曲がってください migi e magat te kudasai

Can you show me?

案内してもらえますか。 annai shi te morae masu ka .

I can show you!

はい、案内します。 hai , annai shi masu .

Come with me!

私と一緒に来て watashi to issho ni ki te

How long does it take to get there?

そこまでどのぐらいかかりますか。 soko made dono gurai kakari masu ka .

Downtown (city center)

繁華街 hanka gai

Historic center (old city)

歴史ある古い町 rekishi aru furui machi

It’s near here

ここから近いです。 koko kara chikai desu .

It’s far from here

ここから遠いです。 koko kara tooi desu .

Is it within walking distance?

歩いて行けますか。 arui te ike masu ka .

I’m looking for Mr. Smith

スミスさんに会いたいんですが sumisu san ni ai tai n desu ga

One moment please!

ちょっと待ってください! chotto mat te kudasai !

Hold on please! (when on the phone)

少々お待ちください! shooshoo omachi kudasai !

He is not here

ここはいません。 koko wa i mase n .

Airport

空港 kuukoo

Bus station

バス停 basutei

Train station

eki

Taxi

タクシー takushii

Near

近い chikai

Far

遠い tooi

Emergency Survival Phrases

Help!

助けて! tasuke te !

Stop!

止まれ! tomare !

Fire!

火事! kaji !

Thief!

泥棒! doroboo !

Run!

走ろう! hashiro u !

Watch out! (or: be alert!)

気を付けて! ki o tsuke te !

Call the police!

警察を呼べ! keisatsu o yobe !

Call a doctor!

医者を呼んでください! isha o yon de kudasai !

Call the ambulance!

救急車を呼べ! kyuukyuu sha o yobe !

Are you okay?

大丈夫ですか。 daijoobu desu ka .

I feel sick

気持ち悪い kimochi warui

I need a doctor

医者に診てもらう必要がある。 isha ni mi te morau hitsuyoo ga aru .

Accident

事故 jiko

Food poisoning

食中毒 shokuchuudoku

Where is the closest pharmacy?

近くの薬局はどこですか。 chikaku no yakkyoku wa doko desu ka .

It hurts here

ここが痛い koko ga itai

It’s urgent!

緊急です。 kinkyuu desu .

Calm down!

落ち着いて! ochitsui te !

You will be okay!

大丈夫ですよ! daijoobu desu yo !

Can you help me?

助けてくれますか。 tasuke te kure masu ka .

Can I help you?

お手伝いしましょうか? otetsudai shi masho u ka ?

Hotel Restaurant Travel Phrases

I have a reservation (for a room)

予約をしてありますが、 yoyaku o shi te ari masu ga ,

Do you have rooms available?

空いている部屋はありますか。 ai te iru heya wa ari masu ka .

With shower / With bathroom

シャー付き、バス付き shaa tsuki , basu tsuki

I would like a non-smoking room

禁煙室お願いします kinen shitsu onegai shi masu

What is the charge per night?

一泊いくらですか。 ichi haku ikura desu ka .

I’m here on business /on vacation

仕事・休暇で来ています shigoto . kyuuka de ki te i masu

Dirty

汚い kitanai

Clean

きれい kirei

Do you accept credit cards?

クレジット・カードは使えますか。 kurejitto . kaado wa tsukae masu ka .

I’d like to rent a car

車を借りたいんですが kuruma o kari tai n desu ga

How much will it cost?

どのぐらいかかりますか。 dono gurai kakari masu ka .

A table for (one / two) please!

(一人・二人)なんですが、テーブルはありますか。 ( ichi nin . ni nin ) na n desu ga , teeburu wa ari masu ka .

Is this seat taken?

この席、どなたかいらっしゃいますか? kono seki , donata ka irasshai masu ka ?

I’m vegetarian

ベジタリアンです。 bejitarian desu .

I don’t eat pork

豚肉はたべません。 butaniku wa tabe mase n .

I don’t drink alcohol

アルコールは飲みません。 arukooru wa nomi mase n .

What’s the name of this dish?

なんという料理ですか。 nanto iu ryoori desu ka .

Waiter / waitress!

ウエーターさん ueetaa san

Can we have the check please?

勘定をお願いします。 kanjoo o onegai shi masu .

It is very delicious!

とても美味しいです。 totemo oishii desu .

I don’t like it

気に食わない ki ni kuwa nai

Shopping Expressions

How much is this?

幾らですか。 ikura desu ka .

I’m just looking

見ているだけです。 mi te iru dake desu .

I don’t have change

釣り銭がありません。 tsurisen ga ari mase n .

This is too expensive

高過ぎる taka sugiru

Expensive

高い takai

Cheap

安い yasui

Daily Expressions

What time is it?

今、何時ですか。 ima , nan ji desu ka .

It’s 3 o’clock

三時です。 san ji desu .

Give me this!

これをください。 kore o kudasai .

Are you sure?

本当ですか。 hontoo desu ka .

Take this! (when giving something)

これ、どうぞ! kore , doozo !

It’s freezing (weather)

凍えそうに寒いです。 kogoe soo ni samui desu .

It’s cold (weather)

寒いです。 samui desu .

It’s hot (weather)

暑いです。 atsui desu .

Do you like it?

好きですか。 suki desu ka .

I really like it!

本当に好きです。 hontooni suki desu .

I’m hungry

おなかがつきました。 onaka ga tsuki mashi ta .

I’m thirsty

のどが渇きました。 nodo ga kawaki mashi ta .

He is funny

彼は面白いです。 kare wa omoshiroi desu .

In The Morning

朝に asa ni

In the evening

夕方に yuugata ni

At Night

夜に yoru ni

Hurry up!

急いで isoi de

Cuss Words (polite)

This is nonsense! (or: this is craziness)

無意味です! muimi desu !

My God! (to show amazement)

信じられない! shinji rare nai !

Oh gosh! (when making a mistake)

困った! komat ta !

It sucks! (or: this is not good)

ひどい! hidoi !

What’s wrong with you?

どうしたのですか。 doo shi ta no desu ka .

Are you crazy?

馬鹿じゃないの? baka ja nai no ?

Get lost! (or: go away!)

失せろ! usero !

Leave me alone!

ほっといてくれ! hottoi te kure !

I’m not interested!

興味がない kyoomi ga nai

Writing a Letter

Dear John

ジョンさん jon san

My trip was very nice

旅はとても良かったです。 tabi wa totemo yokat ta desu .

The culture and people were very interesting

人と文化はとても面白かったです。 hito to bunka wa totemo omoshirokat ta desu .

I had a good time with you

あなたと過ごした時間は楽しかったです。 anata to sugoshi ta jikan wa tanoshikat ta desu .

I would love to visit your country again

お国をまた伺いしたいと思います。 o kuni o mata ukagai shi tai to omoi masu .

Don’t forget to write me back from time to time

時々連絡をとってね tokidoki renraku o tot te ne

Short Expressions and words

Good

いい ii

Bad

駄目 dame

So-so (or: not bad not good)

まあまあ maa maa

Big

大きい ookii

Small

小さい chiisai

Today

今日 kyoo

Now

ima

Tomorrow

明日 ashita

Yesterday

昨日 kinoo

Yes

はい hai

No

 いいえ iie

Fast

速い hayai

Slow

遅い osoi

Hot

暑い atsui

Cold

寒い samui

This

これ kore

That

それ sore

Here

ここ koko

There

そこ soko

Me (ie. Who did this? – Me)

watashi

You

あなた anata

Him

kare

Her

彼女 kanojo

Us

私達 watashi tachi

Them

彼ら karera

Really?

本当に? hontooni ?

Look!

ほら! hora !

What?

何? nani ?

Where?

どこ? doko ?

Who?

だれ? dare ?

How?

どう? doo ?

When?

いつ? itsu ?

Why?

なぜ? naze ?

Zero

ゼロ zero

One

ichi

Two

ni

Three

san

Four

yon

Five

go

Six

roku

Seven

nana

Eight

hachi

Nine

kyuu

Ten

juu

 

 

Japanese Characters

 

Japanese Alphabet English Sound Pronunciation Example

a as in acute

i as in ink

oo as in tool

e as in elephant

o as in Omega

ha as in Hanukkah

hi as in history

fu as in Fuji

he as in help

ho as in home

kka as in Hanukkah

ki as in kiss

ko as in cook

ke as in kept

ko as in Korea

ma as in machine

mi as in ministry

mu as in moon

me as in melody

mo as in Monaco

sa as in sauna

shi as in ship

su as in Sumatra

se as in Senegal

so as in Somalia

ya as in yard

yu as in you

yo as in yoga

ta as in taught

chi as in chin

tsu as in tsunami

te as in telephone

to as in Toshiba

ra as in Sahara

ri as in ring

ru as in ruby

re as in rest

ro as in Romania

na as in knot

ni as in knit

nu as in nuke

ne as in nest

no as in Norway

wa as in Washington

wi as in Wii (no longer used)

n as in ton

we as in west (no longer used)

wo as in wolf

 

 

 

Japanese Numbers

 

English Numbers Japanese Numbers
numbers suu ji – 数字
one ichi –
two ni –
three san –
four yon –
five go –
six roku –
seven nana –
eight hachi –
nine kyuu –
ten juu –
eleven juu ichi – 十一
twelve juu ni – 十二
thirteen juu san – 十三
fourteen juu yon – 十四
fifteen juu go – 十五
sixteen juu roku – 十六
seventeen juu nana – 十七
eighteen juu hachi – 十八
nineteen juu kyuu – 十九
twenty ni juu – 二十
hundred hyaku –
one thousand sen –
million hyaku man – 百万

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Numbers in Japanese has a logical pattern. Locate the Numbers above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Japanese.

List of Ordinal Numbers in Japanese

Japanese Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set: first, second, third, etc. Ordinal numbers do not show quantity. They only show rank or position. Below is a list of the Cardinal Numbers and Ordinal Numbers in Japanese. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Japanese vocabulary.

English Numbers Japanese Numbers
Ordinal Numbers josuu – 序数
first ichi banme no – 一番目の
second ni banme no – 二番目の
third san banme no – 三番目の
fourth yon banme no – 四番目の
fifth go banme no – 五番目の
sixth roku banme no – 六番目の
seventh nana banme no – 七番目の
eighth hachi banme no – 八番目の
ninth kyuu banme no – 九番目の
tenth juu banme no – 十番目の
eleventh juuichi banme no – 十一番目の
twelfth juuni banme no – 十二番目の
thirteenth juusan banme no – 十三番目の
fourteenth juuyon banme no – 十四番目の
fifteenth juugo banme no – 十五番目の
sixteenth juuroku banme no – 十六番目の
seventeenth juunana banme no – 十七番目の
eighteenth juuhachi banme no – 十八番目の
nineteenth juukyuu banme no – 十九番目の
twentieth nijuu banme no – 二十番目の
once ik kai – 一回
twice ni kai – 二回

 

 

Japanese Vocabulary

 

English Vocabulary Japanese Vocabulary
Vocabulary goi – 語彙
Countries kuni –
Australia oosutoraria – オーストラリア
Cambodia kanbojia – カンボジア
Canada kanada – カナダ
China chuugoku – 中国
Egypt ejiputo – エジプト
England eikoku – 英国
France furansu – フランス
Germany doitsu – ドイツ
Greece girisha – ギリシャ
India indo – インド
Indonesia indoneshia – インドネシア
Italy itaria – イタリア
Japan nippon – 日本
Mexico mekishiko – メキシコ
Morocco morokko – モロッコ
Peru peruu – ペルー
Spain supein – スペイン
Thailand tai – タイ
USA amerikagasshuukoku – アメリカ合衆国
Languages gengo – 言語
Arabic arabia go – アラビア語
Chinese chuugoku go – 中国語
English ei go – 英語
French furansu go – フランス語
German doitsu go – ドイツ語
Greek girisha go – ギリシャ語
Hebrew heburai go – ヘブライ語
Hindi hindii go – ヒンディー語
Italian itaria go – イタリア語
Japanese nihon go – 日本語
Korean kankoku go – 韓国語
Latin raten go – ラテン語
Russian roshia go – ロシア語
Spanish supein go – スペイン語
Urdu uruduu go – ウルドゥー語
Days youbi – 曜日
Monday getsuyoubi – 月曜日
Tuesday kayoubi – 火曜日
Wednesday suiyoubi – 水曜日
Thursday mokuyoubi – 木曜日
Friday kinyoubi – 金曜日
Saturday doyoubi – 土曜日
Sunday nichiyoubi – 日曜日
time jikan – 時間
hour jikan – 時間
minute fun –
second byou –

List of Vocabulary in Japanese

Below is a list of the vocabulary and expressions in Japanese placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Japanese vocabulary.

English Vocabulary Japanese Vocabulary
Vocabulary
colors iro –
black kuroi – 黒い
blue aoi – 青い
brown chairo no – 茶色の
gray haiiro no – 灰色
green midori no – 緑の
orange orenji iro no – オレンジ色の
purple murasaki no – 紫の
red akai – 赤い
white shiroi – 白い
yellow kiiroi – 黄色い
sizes ookisa – 大きさ
big ookii – 大きい
deep fukai – 深い
long nagai – 長い
narrow semai – 狭い
short mijikai – 短い
small chiisai – 小さい
tall takai – 高い
thick atsui – 厚い
thin usui – 薄い
wide hiroi – 広い
tastes aji –
bitter nigai – 苦い
fresh shioke no nai – 塩気のない
salty shiokarai – 塩辛い
sour suppai – 酸っぱい
spicy karai – 辛い
sweet amai – 甘い
qualities seishitsu – 性質
bad warui – 悪い
clean kirei – きれい
dark kurai – 暗い
difficult muzukashii – 難しい
dirty kitanai – 汚い
dry kawai ta – 乾いた
easy kantan na – 簡単な
empty kara no – 空の
expensive kouka na – 高価な
fast hayai – 速い
foreign gaikoku no – 外国の
full ippai no – いっぱいの
good yoi – 良い
hard katai – 固い
heavy omoi – 重い
inexpensive yasui – 安い
light karui – 軽い
local roukaru – ローカル
new atarashii – 新しい
noisy urusai – うるさい
old furui – 古い
powerful kyouryoku na – 強力な
quiet shizuka na – 静かな
correct tadashii – 正しい
slow osoi – 遅い
soft yawarakai – 柔らかい
very totemo – とても
weak yowai – 弱い
wet shimetta – 湿った
wrong machigatta – 間違った
young wakai – 若い
food shokuhin – 食品
almonds aamondo – アーモンド
bread pan – パン
breakfast choushoku – 朝食
butter bataa – バター
candy ame –
cheese chiizu – チーズ
chicken toriniku – 鶏肉
cumin kumin – クミン
dessert dezaato – デザート
dinner seisan – 正餐
fish sakana –
fruit kudamono – 果物
ice cream aisukuriimu – アイスクリーム
lamb ko hitsuji no niku – 子羊の肉
lemon remon – レモン
lunch chuushoku – 昼食
meal shokuji – 食事
meat niku –
oven oubun – オーブン
pepper koshoo – コショウ
plants shokubutsu – 植物
pork butaniku – 豚肉
salad sarada – サラダ
salt shio –
sandwich sandoicchi – サンドイッチ
sausage souseiji – ソーセージ
soup suupu – スープ
sugar satou – 砂糖
supper yuushoku – 夕食
turkey shichimenchou – 七面鳥
apple ringo – リンゴ
banana banana – バナナ
oranges orenji – オレンジ
peaches momo –
peanut piinattsu – ピーナッツ
pears nashi –
pineapple painappuru – パイナップル
grapes budou – 葡萄
strawberries ichigo –
vegetables yasai – 野菜
carrot ninjin – ニンジン
corn toumorokoshi – トウモロコシ
cucumber kyuuri – キュウリ
garlic ninniku – ニンニク
lettuce retasu – レタス
olives oriibu – オリーブ
onions tamanegi – 玉葱
peppers koshou – 胡椒
potatoes jagaimo – ジャガイモ
pumpkin kabocha – カボチャ
beans mame –
tomatoes tomato – トマト
alligator wani – ワニ
alligators wani – ワニ
bear kuma –
bears kuma –
bird tori –
birds tori –
bull oushi – 雄牛
bulls oushi – 雄牛
cat neko –
cats neko –
cow meushi – 雌牛
cows meushi – 雌牛
deer shika – 鹿
many deer ooku no shika – 多くの鹿
dog inu –
dogs inu –
donkey roba – ロバ
donkeys roba – ロバ
eagle washi – ワシ
eagles washi – ワシ
elephant zou –
elephants zou –
giraffe kirin – キリン
giraffes kirin – キリン
goat yagi – ヤギ
goats yagi – ヤギ
horse uma –
horses uma –
lion raion – ライオン
lions raion – ライオン
monkey saru – サル
monkeys saru – サル
mouse nezumi – ネズミ
mice nezumi – ネズミ
rabbit usagi – ウサギ
rabbits usagi – ウサギ
snake hebi – ヘビ
snakes hebi – ヘビ
tiger tora –
tigers tora –
wolf ookami – オオカミ
wolves ookami – オオカミ
objects mono –
bathroom yokushitsu – 浴室
bed shindai – 寝台
bedroom shinshitsu – 寝室
ceiling tenjoo – 天井
chair isu – 椅子
clothes fuku –
coat kouto – コート
cup koppu – コップ
desk tsukue –
dress doresu – ドレス
floor yuka –
fork fooku – フォーク
furniture kagu – 家具
glass garasu – ガラス
hat boushi – 帽子
house ie –
ink inku – インク
jacket jaketto – ジャケット
kitchen daidokoro – 台所
knife naifu – ナイフ
lamp ranpu – ランプ
letter tegami – 手紙
map chizu – 地図
newspaper shinbun – 新聞
notebook nouto – ノート
pants zubon – ズボン
paper kami –
pen pen – ペン
pencil enpitsu – 鉛筆
pharmacy yakkyoku – 薬局
picture e –
plate sara –
refrigerator reizouko – 冷蔵庫
restaurant ryouriten – 料理店
roof yane – 屋根
room heya – 部屋
rug shikimono – 敷物
scissors hasami – はさみ
shampoo shanpuu – シャンプー
shirt shatsu – シャツ
shoes kutsu –
soap sekken – 石鹸
socks kutsushita – 靴下
spoon supuun – スプーン
table teiburu – テーブル
toilet toire – トイレ
toothbrush haburashi – 歯ブラシ
toothpaste hamigakiko – 歯磨き粉
towel tenugui – 手ぬぐい
umbrella kasa –
underwear shitagi – 下着
wall kabe –
wallet saifu – 財布
window mado –
telephone denwa – 電話
this kono – この
that sono – その
these korera no – これらの
those sorera no – それらの
Questions
how? dono youni desu ka ? – どのようにですか?
what? nan desu ka ? – 何ですか?
who? dare desu ka ? – 誰ですか?
why? naze desu ka ? – なぜですか?
where? doko desu ka ? – どこですか?
different objects shuju no mono – 種々のもの
art geijutsu – 芸術
bank ginkoo – 銀行
beach kaihin – 海浜
book hon –
by bicycle jitensha de – 自転車で
by bus basu de – バスで
by car kuruma de – 車で
by train densha de – 電車で
cafe kafe – カフェ
country kuni –
desert sabaku – 砂漠
dictionary jisho – 辞書
earth chikyuu – 地球
flowers hana –
football sakkaa – サッカー
forest shinrin – 森林
game geemu – ゲーム
garden niwa –
geography chiri – 地理
history rekishi – 歴史
house ie –
island shima –
lake mizuumi –
library toshokan – 図書館
math suugaku – 数学
moon tsuki –
mountain yama –
movies eiga – 映画
music ongaku – 音楽
ocean taiyou – 大洋
office jimusho – 事務所
on foot toho de – 徒歩で
player senshu – 選手
river kawa –
science kagaku – 科学
sea umi –
sky sora –
soccer sakkaa – サッカー
stars hoshi –
supermarket suupaamaaketto – スーパーマーケット
swimming pool suiei puuru – 水泳プール
theater gekijou – 劇場
tree ki –
weather tenki – 天気
bad weather akutenkoo – 悪天候
cloudy kumot ta – 曇った
cold samui – 寒い
cool tsumetai – 冷たい
foggy kiri bukai – 霧深い
hot atsui – 暑い
nice weather koutenki – 好天気
pouring doshaburi – 土砂降り
rain ame –
raining kouu no – 降雨の
snow yuki –
snowing kousetsu no – 降雪の
ice kouri –
sunny seiten no – 晴天の
windy kaze no tsuyoi – 風の強い
spring haru –
summer natsu –
autumn aki –
winter fuyu –
people hito –
aunt oba – 叔母
baby akachan – 赤ちゃん
brother kyoudai – 兄弟
cousin itoko – いとこ
daughter musume –
dentist shika i – 歯科医
doctor ishi – 医師
father chichi –
grandfather sofu – 祖父
grandmother sobo – 祖母
husband otto –
mother haha –
nephew oi –
niece mei –
nurse kango shi – 看護師
policeman keikan – 警官
postman yuubin haitatsu – 郵便配達
professor kyouju – 教授
son musuko – 息子
teacher kyoushi – 教師
uncle oji – 叔父
wife tsuma –

 

 

colors

iro

black

kuroi
黒い

white

shiroi
白い

gray

haiiro
灰色

blue

aoi
青い

green

midori

brown

chairo
茶色

purple

murasaki

red

akai
赤い

orange

orenji
オレンジ

yellow

kiiroi

 

 

one

ichi

two

ni

three

san

four

yon

five

go

six

roku

seven

nana

eight

hachi

nine

kyuu

ten

juu

 

 

head

atama

face

kao

hair

kaminoke
髪の毛

eye

me

ear

mimi

nose

hana

mouth

kuchi

tooth

ha

arm

ude

hand

te

heart

shinzoo
心臓

stomach

hara

leg

ashi

foot

ashi

 

 

 

yesterday
kinoo
昨日

today
kyoo
今日

tomorrow
ashita
明日

here
koko
ここ

there
soko
そこ

quickly
hayaku
速く

slowly
yukkuri
ゆっくり

always
itsumo
いつも

sometimes
tokidoki
時々

never
kesshite
決して

 

 

Days
nichi
Monday
getsuyoobi
月曜日
Tuesday
kayoobi
火曜日
Wednesday
suiyoobi
水曜日
Thursday
mokuyoobi
木曜日
Friday
kinyoobi
金曜日
Saturday
doyoobi
土曜日
Sunday
nichiyoobi
日曜日

 

 

Food

shokuhin
食品

bread

pan
パン

cheese

chiizu
チーズ

meat

niku

chicken

keiniku
鶏肉

fish

sakana

sandwich

sandoicchi
サンドイッチ

salad

sarada
サラダ

salt

shio

candy

okashi
お菓子

fruit

furuutsu
フルーツ

apple

ringo
リンゴ

 

 

cat

neko

dog

inu

mouse

mezumi
メズミ

cow

ushi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

horse

uma

alligator

wani
ワニ

rabbit

usagi
ウサギ

bird

tori

bear

kuma

eagle

washi
ワシ

elephant

zoo

giraffe

kirin
キリン

lion

raion
ライオン

monkey

saru
サル

snake

hebi
ヘビ

tiger

tora

 

 

pharmacy

yakkyoku
薬局

restaurant

resutoran
レストラン

house

ie

room

heya
部屋

bathroom

toire
トイレ

toilet

toire
トイレ

bedroom

heya
部屋

kitchen

daidokoro
台所

 

 

 

 

floor

yuka

roof

yane
屋根

ceiling

tenjoo
天井

wall

kabe

window

mado

 

 

objects

mono

shampoo

shanpuu
シャンプー

soap

sekken
石鹸

towel

taoru
タオル

toothbrush

haburashi
歯ブラシ

toothpaste

hamigakiko
歯磨き粉

bed

beddo
ベッド

refrigerator

reizooko
冷蔵庫

table

teeburu
テーブル

cup

koppu
コップ

fork

fooku
フォーク

knife

naifu
ナイフ

 

 

clothes

fuku

coat

kooto
コート

hat

booshi
帽子

jacket

jaketto
ジャケット

pants

zubon
ズボン

shoes

kutsu

umbrella

kasa

socks

kutsushita
靴下

 

 

 

beach

biichi
ビーチ

island

shima

desert

sabaku
砂漠

mountain

yama

forest

shinrin
森林

tree

ki

flowers

hana

garden

niwa

river

kawa

lake

mizuumi

sea

umi

sky

sora

stars

hoshi

moon

tsuki

earth

chikyuu
地球

 

 

 

 

 

people

hito

husband

otto

wife

tsuma

father

chichi

mother

haha

son

musuko
息子

daughter

musume

brother

otooto

grandfather

sofu
祖父

grandmother

sobo
祖母

 

 

 

after
nochini
後に
before
mae
below
ika
以下
on top of
ue ni
上に
for
no tame ni
のために
from
kara
から
inside
naibu
内部
outside
soto
under
shita
until
made
まで

 

 

 

Hiragana

Syllables (Alphabet)

a ka sa ta na
i ki shi chi ni
u ku su tsu nu
e ke se te ne
o ko so to no
ha ma ya ra wa
hi mi ri wi
fu mu yu ru n
he me re we
ho mo yo ro wo

 

 

EN JP EN JP EN JP EN JP EN JP
 
ga za da ba pa
gi ji ji bi pi
gu zu zu bu pu
ge ze de be pe
go zo do bo po
 
kya きゃ sha しゃ cha ちゃ hya ひゃ pya ぴゃ
kyu きゅ shu しゅ chu ちゅ hyu ひゅ pyu ぴゅ
kyo きょ sho しょ cho ちょ hyo ひょ pyo ぴょ
 
gya ぎゃ ja じゃ nya にゃ bya びゃ mya みゃ
gya ぎゅ ju じゅ nyu にゅ byu びゅ my みゅ
gyo ぎょ jo じょ nyo にょ byo びょ myo みょ
rya りゃ ryu りゅ ryu りょ (ja) ぢゃ (ju) ぢゅ

 

Katakana Syllables (Alphabet)

 

EN JP EN JP EN JP EN JP EN JP
 
a ka sa ta na
i ki shi chi ni
u ku su tsu nu
e ke se te ne
o ko so to no
ha ma ya ra wa
hi mi ri (wi)
fu mu yu ru n
he me re (we)
ho mo yo ro (w)o

 

 

EN

JP

EN

JP

EN

JP

EN

JP

EN

JP

 

ga

za

da

ba

pa

gi

ji

ji

bi

pi

gu

zu

zu

bu

pu

ge

ze

de

be

pe

go

zo

do

bo

po

 

kya

キャ

sha

シャ

cha

チャ

hya

ヒャ

pya

ピャ

kyu

キュ

shu

シュ

chu

チュ

hyu

ヒュ

pyu

ピュ

kyo

キョ

sho

ショ

cho

チョ

hyo

ヒョ

pyo

ピョ

 

gya

ギャ

ja

ジャ

nya

ニャ

bya

ビャ

mya

ミャ

gya

ギュ

ju

ジュ

nyu

ニュ

byu

ビュ

my

ミュ

gyo

ギョ

jo

ジョ

nyo

ニョ

byo

ビョ

myo

ミョ

rya

リャ

ryu

リュ

ryu

リョ

(ja)

ヂャ

(ju)

ヂュ

 

 

 

Kanji Characters (Alphabet)

 

EN JP EN JP EN JP EN JP
 
ye イェ va (ヷ) va ヴァ she シェ
wi ウィ vi (ヸ) vi ヴィ je ジェ
we ウェ vu ve ヴェ che チェ
wo ウォ ve (ヹ) vo ヴォ
vo (ヺ) vya ヴャ
ti ティ tsa ツァ fa ファ
tu トゥ tsi ツィ fi フィ
tyu テュ tse ツェ fe フェ
di ディ tso ツォ fo フォ
du ドゥ fyu フュ
dyu デュ

 

 

***

 

Names

 

Japanese Female Names
Ai 愛, 藍 meaning: 愛 (love, affection) or 藍 (indigo).
Aiko 愛子 meaning: 愛 [ai] (love, affection) + 子 [ko] (child).
Aimi 愛美 meaning: 愛 [ai] (love, affection) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Aina 愛菜 meaning: 愛 [ai] (love, affection) + 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens).
Airi 愛莉, 愛梨 meaning: 愛 [ai] (love, affection) + 莉 [ri] (jasmine) or 梨 [ri] (pear).
Akane 茜 meaning (deep red) .
Akemi 明美 meaning: 明 [ake] (bright) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Aki 晶, 明, 秋, 亜希 meaning: 晶 (sparkle), 明 (bright) or 秋 (autumn)
Akiko 晶子, 明子, 秋子 meaning: 晶 [aki] (sparkle), 明 [aki] (bright) or 秋 [aki] (autumn) + 子 [ko] (child).
Akira 昭, 明, 亮 meaning: 昭 (bright), 明 (bright) or 亮 (clear).
Ami 亜美 meaning: 亜 [a] (second, asia) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Aoi 葵, 碧 meaning: 葵 (hollyhock, althea) or 碧 (blue).
Asuka 明日香 meaning: 明日 [asu] (tomorrow) + 香 [ka] (smell, perfume).
Atsuko 温子, 篤子 meaning: 温 [atsu] (warm) or 篤 [atsu] (kind, cordial) + 子 [ko] (child).
Aya 彩, 綾 meaning: 彩 (colour) or 綾 (design).
Ayaka 彩花, 彩華 meaning: 彩 [aya] (colour) + 花 [ka] (flower) or 華 [ka] (petal).
Ayako 彩子, 綾子, 絢子 meaning: 彩 [aya] (colour), 綾 [aya] (design) or 絢 [aya] (kimono design) + 子 [ko] (child).
Ayame 菖蒲 meaning (iris) .
Ayane 彩音, 綾音, 絢音 meaning: 彩 [aya] (colour), 綾 [aya] (design) or 絢 [aya] (kimono design) + 音 [ne] (sound).
Ayano 彩乃, 綾乃 meaning: 彩 [aya] (colour) or 綾 [aya] (design) + 乃 [no], a possessive particle.
Chika 散花 meaning: 散 [chi] (scatter) + 花 [ka] (flower).
Chikako 千香子 meaning: 千 [chi] (thousand), 香 [ka] (smell, perfume) + 子 [ko] (child).
Chinatsu 千夏 meaning: 千 [chi] (thousand) + 夏 [natsu] (summer).
Chiyo 千代, 千世 meaning: 千 [chi] (thousand) + 代 [yo] (generations) or 世 [yo] (world).
Chiyoko 千代子 meaning: 千 [chi] (thousand) + 代 [yo] (generations) + 子 [ko] (child).
Cho variant transcription of chou
Chou 蝶 meaning (butterfly) .
Chouko 蝶子 meaning: 蝶 [chou] (butterfly) + 子 [ko] (child).
Emi 恵美, 絵美 meaning: 恵 [e] (blessing, favour) or 絵 [e] (picture) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Etsuko 悦子 meaning: 悦 [etsu] (joy) + 子 [ko] (child).
Hana 花, 華 meaning: 花 or 華 which both mean (flower).
Hanako 花子 meaning: 花 [hana] (flower) + 子 [ko] (child).
Haruka 遥, 春花, 晴香 meaning: 遥 (far off, distant)
Haruko 春子, 陽子 meaning: 春 [haru] (spring) or 陽 [haru] (sun, sunlight) + 子 [ko] (child).
Haruna 晴菜, 遥菜, 春菜 meaning: 晴 [haru] (clear up), 遥 [haru] (far off, distant) or 春 [haru] (spring) + 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens).
Hikari 光 meaning (light)
Hikaru 光, 輝 meaning: 光 (light) or 輝 (radiance).
Hina 陽菜, 日菜 meaning: 陽 [hi] (sun, sunlight) or 日 [hi] (day, sun) + 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens).
Hinata 向日葵, 陽向 meaning: 向日葵 (sunflower) or 陽向 (facing the sun)
Hiroko 寛子, 裕子, 浩子 meaning: 寛 [hiro] (tolerant, generous), 裕 [hiro] (abundant) or 浩 [hiro] (prosperous) + 子 [ko] (child).
Hitomi 瞳, 智美 meaning: 瞳 (pupil of the eye)
Honoka 和花 meaning: 和 [hono] (harmony) [using an obscure nanori reading] + 花 [ka] (flower)
Hoshi 星 meaning (star) .
Hoshiko 星子 meaning: 星 [hoshi] (star) + 子 [ko] (child).
Hotaru 蛍 meaning (firefly) .
Izumi 泉 meaning (fountain, spring) .
Junko 順子, 純子 meaning: 順 [jun] (obedient) or 純 [jun] (genuine, pure) + 子 [ko] (child).
Kaede 楓 meaning (maple) .
Kanon 花音 meaning: 花 [ka] (flower) + 音 [non] (sound).
Kaori 香, 香織 meaning: 香 (smell, perfume, fragrance)
Kaoru 薫 meaning (fragrance) .
Kasumi 霞, 花澄 meaning: 霞 (mist)
Kazuko 一子, 和子 meaning: 一 [kazu] (one) or 和 [kazu] (harmony) + 子 [ko] (child).
Keiko 慶子, 敬子, 啓子 meaning: 慶 [kei] (celebrate), 敬 [kei] (respect) or 啓 [kei] (open) + 子 [ko] (child).
Kiku 菊 meaning (chrysanthemum) .
Kimiko 后子, 君子 meaning: 后 [kimi] (empress) or 君 [kimi] (senior, noble) + 子 [ko] (child).
Kiyoko 清子 meaning: 清 [kiyo] (pure, clean) + 子 [ko] (child).
Kohaku 琥珀 meaning (amber) .
Kokoro 心 meaning (heart, spirit)
Kotone 琴音 meaning: 琴 [koto] (harp, lute) + 音 [ne] (sound).
Kumiko 久美子 meaning: 久 [ku] (long time), 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 子 [ko] (child).
Kyo variant transcription of kyou
Kyou 協, 京, 郷, 杏 meaning: 協 (cooperation), 協 (capital), 郷 (village) or 杏 (apricot).

 

Mai 舞, 麻衣, 真愛 meaning: 舞 (dance) or 麻衣 (linen robe)
Makoto 誠 meaning (sincerity) .
Mami 真美, 麻美 meaning: 真 [ma] (real, true) or 麻 [ma] (flax) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Manami 愛美, 愛海 meaning: 愛 [mana] (love, affection) + 美 [mi] (beautiful) or 海 [mi] (sea, ocean).
Mao 真央, 真緒, 舞桜 meaning: 真 [ma] (real, true) or 舞 [ma] (dance) + 央 [o] (center), 緒 [o] (thread) or 桜 [ou] (cherry blossom).
Mariko 真里子 meaning: 真 [ma] (real, true), 里 [ri] (village) + 子 [ko] (child).
Masami 成美 meaning: 成 [masa] (become) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Masuyo 益世 meaning: 益 [masu] (benefit) + 世 [yo] (world).
Mayu 真優, 満夕 meaning: 真 [ma] (true) or 満 [ma] (full) + 優 [yu] (gentleness, superiority) or 夕 [yu] (evening).
Megumi 恵 meaning (blessing)
Mei 芽依, 芽生, 芽衣 meaning: 芽 [me] (bud, sprout) + 依 [i] (reliant), 生 [i] (life) or 衣 [i] (clothing, garment).
Michi 道 meaning (path) .
Michiko 美智子 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful), 智 [chi] (wisdom, intellect) + 子 [ko] (child).
Midori 緑 meaning (green) .
Miki 美紀 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 紀 [ki] (chronicle).
Miku 美空, 美久, 未来 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 空 [ku] (sky) or 久 [ku] (long time)
Minako 美奈子 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful), 奈 [na], a phonetic character, + 子 [ko] (child).
Mio 美桜, 美緒 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 桜 [ou] (cherry blossom) or 緒 [o] (thread).
Misaki 美咲 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 咲 [saki] (blossom).
Mitsuko 光子 meaning: 光 [mitsu] (light) + 子 [ko] (child).
Miu 美羽 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 羽 [u] (feather).
Miyako 美夜子 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful), 夜 [ya] (night) + 子 [ko] (child).
Miyu 美優, 美結, 実優 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) or 実 [mi] (truth) + 優 [yu] (gentleness, superiority) or 結 [yu] (tie, bind).
Mizuki 美月, 瑞希 meaning: 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 月 [zuki] (moon)
Moe 萌 meaning (bud, sprout) .
Momoka 百花, 桃花, 桃香 meaning: 百 [momo] (hundred) or 桃 [momo] (peach tree) + 花 [ka] (flower) or 香 [ka] (smell, perfume).
Momoko 百子, 桃子 meaning: 百 [momo] (hundred) or 桃 [momo] (peach tree) + 子 [ko] (child).
Moriko 森子 meaning: 森 [mori] (forest) + 子 [ko] (child).
Nana 菜々, 奈々 from a duplication of japanese 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens) or 奈 [na], a phonetic character.
Nanami 七海, 菜々美 meaning: 七 [nana] (seven) + 海 [mi] (sea)
Naoko 直子 meaning: 直 [nao] (honest, straight) + 子 [ko] (child).
Naomi 直美 meaning: 直 [nao] (honest, straight) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Natsuki 菜月, 夏希 meaning: 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens) + 月 [tsuki] (moon)
Natsuko 夏子 meaning: 夏 [natsu] (summer) + 子 [ko] (child).
Natsumi 夏美, 菜摘 meaning: 夏 [natsu] (summer) + 美 [mi] (beautiful)
Noa 乃愛 meaning: 乃 [no], a possessive particle, + 愛 [a] (love, affection).
Noriko 法子, 典子 meaning: 法 [nori] (law, rule) or 典 [nori] (code, ceremony) + 子 [ko] (child).
Ran 蘭 meaning (orchid) .
Rei 鈴, 麗 meaning: 鈴 (bell) or 麗 (lovely).
Ren 蓮, 恋 meaning: 蓮 (lotus) or 恋 (romance, love).
Riko 莉子, 理子 meaning: 莉 [ri] (jasmine) or 理 [ri] (truth) + 子 [ko] (child).
Rin 凛 meaning (dignified, severe, cold) .
Rina 莉奈, 里菜 meaning: 莉 [ri] (jasmine) or 里 [ri] (village) + 奈 [na], a phonetic character, or 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens).
Rio 莉央, 莉緒, 里桜 Meaning: 莉 [ri] (jasmine) or 里 [ri] (village) + 央 [o] (center), 緒 [o] (thread) or 桜 [ou] (cherry blossom).
Sachiko 幸子 meaning: 幸 [sachi] (happiness) + 子 [ko] (child).
Saki 咲希 meaning: 咲 [sa] (blossom) + 希 [ki] (hope).
Sakura 桜, 咲良 meaning: 桜 (cherry blossom), though it is often written さくら using the hiragana writing system
Sakurako 桜子 meaning: 桜 [sakura] (cherry blossom) + 子 [ko] (child).
Satomi 里美, 聡美 meaning: 里 [sato] (village) or 聡 [sato] (wise) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Sayuri 小百合 meaning: 小 [sa] (small) + 百合 [yuri] (lily).
Setsuko 節子 meaning: 節 [setsu] (occasion, period, melody) + 子 [ko] (child).
Shinju 真珠 meaning (pearl) .
Shinobu 忍 meaning (endurance) .
Shiori 栞 meaning (bookmark) .
Shizuka 静夏, 静香 meaning: 静 [shizu] (quiet) + 夏 [ka] (summer) or 香 [ka] (smell, perfume).
Shun 駿 meaning (speed) .
Sora 空, 昊 meaning: 空 or 昊 which both mean (sky).
Sumiko 澄子 meaning: 澄 [sumi] (clear) + 子 [ko] (child).
Suzu 鈴 meaning (bell) .
Suzume 雀 meaning (sparrow) .
Takako 孝子 meaning: 孝 [taka] (filial piety) + 子 [ko] (child).
Takara 宝 meaning (treasure) .
Tamiko 多美子 meaning: 多 [ta] (many), 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 子 [ko] (child).
Tomiko 富子 meaning: 富 [tomi] (wealth, abundance) + 子 [ko] (child).
Tomoko 智子, 朋子 meaning: 智 [tomo] (wisdom, intellect) or 朋 [tomo] (friend) + 子 [ko] (child).
Tomomi 朋美 meaning: 朋 [tomo] (friend) + 美 [mi] (beautiful).
Tsubaki 椿 meaning (camellia flower) .
Tsubame 燕 meaning (swallow [bird]) .
Tsukiko 月子 meaning: 月 [tsuki] (moon) + 子 [ko] (child).
Ume 梅 meaning (plum)
Umeko 梅子 meaning: 梅 [ume] (plum) + 子 [ko] (child).
Wakana 和奏 meaning: 和 [wa] (harmony) + 奏 [kana] (play music, complete).
Yasu 安, 康, 坦 meaning: 安 (peaceful), 康 (peace) or 坦 (level).
Yoko variant transcription of youko
Yoshi 吉, 義, 良 meaning: 吉 (good luck), 義 (righteous), or 良 (good).
Yoshiko 良子, 芳子, 悦子 meaning: 良 [yoshi] (good), 芳 [yoshi] (fragrant) or 悦 [yoshi] (joy) + 子 [ko] (child).
Youko 陽子, 洋子 meaning: 陽 [you] (sun, sunlight) or 洋 [you] (ocean) + 子 [ko] (child).
Yua 結愛 meaning: 結 [yu] (tie, bind) + 愛 [a] (love, affection).
Yui 結衣, 優衣, 結 meaning: 結 [yu] (tie, bind) or 優 [yu] (gentleness, superiority) + 衣 [i] (clothing, garment)
Yuina 結菜 meaning: 結 [yui] (tie, bind) + 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens).
Yuki 幸, 雪, 由貴, 由紀 meaning: 幸 (happiness) or 雪 (snow)
Yukiko 幸子, 雪子, 由喜子, 由貴子 meaning: 幸 [yuki] (happiness) or 雪 [yuki] (snow) + 子 [ko] (child)
Yuko 優子 meaning: 優 [yu] (gentleness, superiority) + 子 [ko] (child).
Yumi 弓, 由美, 友美, 弓美 meaning: 弓 (archery bow)
Yumiko 由美子, 弓子 meaning: 弓 [yumi] (archery bow) or 由 [yu] (reason) with 美 [mi] (beautiful) + 子 [ko] (child).
Yuri 百合 meaning (lily) .
Yuu 優, 悠 meaning: 優 (gentleness, superiority) or 悠 (distant, leisurely).
Yuuka 優花 meaning: 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) + 花 [ka] (flower).
Yuuki 優希, 悠希, 優輝, 悠生 meaning: 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) or 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) + 希 [ki] (hope), 輝 [ki] (radiance) or 生 [ki] (life).
Yuuko 優子, 悠子, 裕子 meaning: 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority), 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) or 裕 [yuu] (abundant) + 子 [ko] (child).
Yuuna 優菜, 優奈, 柚菜 meaning: 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) or 柚 [yuu] (citron) + 菜 [na] (vegetables, greens) or 奈 [na], a phonetic character.
Yuzuki 優月 meaning: 優 [yu] (gentleness, superiority) + 月 [zuki] (moon).

 

Japanese Male Names
Akio 昭夫, 昭男, 昭雄 meaning 昭 [aki] (bright) + 夫 [o] (husband, man), 男 [o] (male) or 雄 [o] (hero, manly).
Akira 昭, 明, 亮 meaning 昭 (bright), 明 (bright) or 亮 (clear).
Aoi 葵, 碧 meaning 葵 (hollyhock, althea) or 碧 (blue).
Arata 新 meaning meaning (fresh, new).
Ayumu 歩夢 meaning 歩 [ayu] (walk) + 夢 [mu] (dream, vision).
Daichi 大地, 大智 meaning 大 [dai] (large, great) + 地 [chi] (earth, land) or 智 [chi] (wisdom, intellect).
Daiki 大輝, 大樹, 大貴 meaning 大 [dai] (large, great) + 輝 [ki] (radiance), 樹 [ki] (tree) or 貴 [ki] (valuable, noble).
Daisuke 大輔 meaning 大 [dai] (large, great) + 輔 [suke] (help).
Goro transcription of gorou
Gorou 五郎 meaning 五 [go] (five) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Hachiro transcription of hachirou
Hachirou 八郎 meaning 八 [hachi] (eight) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Haru 陽, 春, 晴 meaning 陽 (sun, sunlight), 春 (spring) or 晴 (clear up).
Haruki 晴輝, 陽生 meaning 晴 [haru] (clear up) or 陽 [haru] (sun, sunlight) + 輝 [ki] (radiance, shine) or 生 [ki] (life).
Haruto 陽斗, 遥斗, 陽翔, 晴斗 meaning 陽 [haru] (sun, sunlight), 遥 [haru] (distant) or 晴 [haru] (clear up) + 斗 [to], which refers to the constellation ursa major, or 翔 [to] (soar, fly).
Hayate 颯 meaning (smooth).
Hayato 隼人 means隼 [haya] (falcon) + 人 [to] (person).
Hibiki 響 meaning (echo, sound).
Hideaki 英明 meaning 英 [hide] (excellent) + 明 [aki] (bright).
Hideki 秀樹, 英樹 meaning 秀 [hide] (esteem, excellence) or 英 [hide] (excellent) + 樹 [ki] (tree).
Hideyoshi 秀良, 秀吉 meaning 秀 [hide] (esteem, excellence) + 良 [yoshi] (good) or 吉 [yoshi] (good luck)
Hikaru 光, 輝 meaning 光 (light) or 輝 (radiance).
Hinata 向日葵, 陽向 meaning 向日葵 (sunflower) or 陽向 (facing the sun)
Hiraku 拓 meaning (expand, open, pioneer).
Hiroshi 寛, 浩 meaning 寛 (tolerant, generous) or 浩 (prosperous).
Hiroto 大翔, 博斗 meaning 大 [hiro] (large, great) or 博 [hiro] (command, esteem) + 翔 [to] (soar, fly) or 斗 [to], which refers to the constellation ursa major.
Hotaka 穂高 meaning 穂 [ho] (grain) + 高 [taka] (tall)
Ichiro transcription of ichirou
Ichirou 一郎 meaning 一 [ichi] (one) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Isamu 勇 meaning (courage, bravery).
Itsuki 樹 meaning (tree)
Jiro variant transcription of jirou
Jirou 二郎 meaning 二 [ji] (two) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Juro transcription of jurou
Jurou 十郎 meaning 十 [ju] (ten) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Kaede 楓 meaning (maple).
Kaito 海斗, 海翔 meaning 海 [kai] (sea, ocean) + 斗 [to], which refers to the constellation ursa major, or 翔 [to] (soar, fly).
Kaoru 薫 meaning (fragrance).
Katashi 堅 meaning (firm, hard).
Katsu 勝 meaning (victory).
Katsuo 勝雄 勝 meaning [katsu] (victory) + 雄 [o] (hero, manly).
Katsuro transcription of katsurou
Katsurou 勝郎 meaning 勝 [katsu] (victory) + 郎 [rou] (son).
Kazuki 一輝, 和希 meaning 一 [kazu] (one) or 和 [kazu] (harmony) + 輝 [ki] (radiance, shine) or 希 [ki] (hope).
Kazuo 一男, 和夫 meaning 一 [kazu] (one) or 和 [kazu] (harmony) + 男 [o] (male) or 夫 [o] (husband, man).
Ken 健 meaning (healthy, strong).
Ken’ichi 健一, 研一 meaning 健 [ken] (healthy, strong) or 研 [ken] (study) + 一 [ichi] (one).
Kenji 研二 meaning 研 [ken] (study) + 二 [ji] (two).
Kenshin 謙信 meaning 謙 [ken] (modest) + 信 [shin] (truth).
Kenta 健太 meaning 健 [ken] (healthy, strong) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Kichiro variant transcription of kichirou
Kichirou 吉郎 meaning 吉 [kichi] (good luck) + 郎 [rou] (son).
Kiyoshi 淳 meaning (pure).
Kohaku 琥珀 meaning (amber).
Kouki 光希, 幸輝 meaning 光 [kou] (light) or 幸 [kou] (happiness) + 希 [ki] (hope) or 輝 [ki] (radiance, shine).
Kouta 康太 meaning 康 [kou] (peace) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Kuro variant transcription of kurou
Kurou 九郎 meaning 九 [ku] (nine) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Kyo variant transcription of kyou
Kyou 協, 京, 郷, 杏 meaning 協 (cooperation), 協 (capital), 郷 (village) or 杏 (apricot).

 

Makoto 誠 meaning (sincerity).
Masaru 勝 meaning (victory).
Michi 道 meaning (path).
Minoru 実 meaning (truth).
Naoki 直樹 meaning 直 [nao] (honest, straight) + 樹 [ki] (tree).
Noboru 翔 meaning (rise, ascend).
Nobu 延 meaning (prolong, stretch).
Noburu 伸 meaning (expand).
Nobuyuki 信幸 meaning 信 [nobu] (truth) + 幸 [yuki] (happiness).
Nori 儀 meaning (rule, ceremony).
Osamu 修 meaning (discipline, study).
Ren 蓮, 恋 meaning 蓮 (lotus) or 恋 (romance, love).
Riku 陸 meaning (land).
Rikuto 陸斗, 陸人 meaning 陸 [riku] (land) + 斗 [to], which refers to the constellation ursa major, or 人 [to] (person).
Rokuro variant transcription of rokurou
Rokurou 六郎 meaning 六 [roku] (six) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Ryo variant transcription of ryou
Ryoichi variant transcription of ryouichi
Ryota variant transcription of ryouta
Ryou 涼, 遼, 諒 meaning 涼 (cool, refreshing), 遼 (distant) or 諒 (reality).
Ryouichi 良一, 亮一 meaning 良 [ryou] (good) or 亮 [ryou] (clear) + 一 [ichi] (one).
Ryouta 涼太, 亮太, 良太 meaning 涼 [ryou] (cool, refreshing), 亮 [ryou] (clear) or 良 [ryou] (good) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Ryuu 龍, 竜 meaning 龍 or 竜 which both mean (dragon).
Ryuunosuke 龍之介, 隆之介 meaning 龍 [ryuu] (dragon) or 隆 [ryuu] (noble, prosperous) + 之 [no] (of) + 介 [suke] (forerunner, herald).
Saburo variant transcription of saburou
Saburou 三郎 meaning 三 [sabu] (three) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Shichiro variant transcription of shichirou
Shichirou 七郎 meaning 七 [shichi] (seven) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Shin 真 meaning (real, true).
Shinobu 忍 meaning (endurance).
Shiro variant transcription of the shirou
Shirou 四郎 meaning 四 [shi] (four) + 郎 [rou] (son)
Sho variant transcription of shou
Shou 翔 meaning (soar, fly).
Shouta 翔太 meaning 翔 [shou] (soar, fly) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Sora 空, 昊 meaning 空 or 昊 which both mean (sky).
Souta 颯太 meaning 颯 [sou] (suddenly, smoothly) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Susumu 進 meaning (advance, proceed).
Taichi 太一 meaning 太 [ta] (thick, big) + 一 [ichi] (one).
Taiki 大輝 meaning 大 [tai] (large, great) + 輝 [ki] (radiance, shine).
Takahiro 貴大, 孝浩 meaning 貴 [taka] (valuable, noble) or 孝 [taka] (filial piety) + 大 [hiro] (large, great) or 浩 [hiro] (prosperous).
Takashi 孝, 隆, 崇 meaning 孝 (filial piety), 隆 (noble, prosperous) or 崇 (reverence).
Takehiko 武彦, 竹彦 meaning 武 [take] (military) or 竹 [take] (bamboo) + 彦 [hiko] (boy, prince).
Takeshi 武 meaning (military, warrior).
Takuma 拓真 meaning 拓 [taku] (expand, open, pioneer) + 真 [ma] (real, true).
Takumi 匠, 巧, 拓海, 拓実 meaning 匠 (artisan) or 巧 (skilled)
Taro variant transcription of tarou
Tarou 太郎 meaning 太 [ta] (thick, big) + 郎 [rou] (son).
Tsubasa 翼 meaning (wing).
Yamato 大和 meaning refers to the ancient yamato period history, which lasted into the 8th century
Yasu 安, 康, 坦 meaning 安 (peaceful), 康 (peace) or 坦 (level).
Yori 頼 meaning (trust).
Yoshi 吉, 義, 良 meaning 吉 (good luck), 義 (righteous), or 良 (good).
Yoshiro variant transcription of yoshirou
Yoshirou 義郎 meaning 義 [yoshi] (righteous) + 郎 [rou] (son).
Youta 陽太 meaning 陽 [you] (sun, sunlight) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Yuu 優, 悠 meaning 優 (gentleness, superiority) or 悠 (distant, leisurely).
Yuudai 雄大 meaning 雄 [yuu] (hero, manly) + 大 [dai] (large, great).
Yuuki 優希, 悠希, 優輝, 悠生 meaning 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) or 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) + 希 [ki] (hope), 輝 [ki] (radiance) or 生 [ki] (life).
Yuuma 悠真, 優真 meaning 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) or 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) + 真 [ma] (real, true).
Yuuta 優太, 悠太, 勇太 meaning 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority), 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) or 勇 [yuu] (brave) + 太 [ta] (thick, big).
Yuuto 優斗, 悠斗, 悠人, 悠翔, 優翔 meaning 優 [yuu] (gentleness, superiority) or 悠 [yuu] (distant, leisurely) + 斗 [to], which refers to the constellation ursa major, or 人 [to] (person) or 翔 [to] (soar, fly).

 

 

 

Japanese Verbs

When it comes to learning the Japanese Verbs, there is good news, unlike English or most European language, Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person (“I”, “we”), second person (“thou”, “you”) and third person (“he/she/it” and “they”), singular and plural. The plain form of all verbs ends in u. There are very few irregular verbs, but if you master the regular verbs and how to use them, then you would have taken care of 98% of the verbs use.

 

Japanese Present Tense

More good news is that the present and the future are the same in Japanese. To understand that better we will take examples in English, in English sometimes you can refer to the future using the present tense, for example a person might say: I’m taking the kids with me next time, even though the present tense was used here, it still refer to the future, usually it’s understood by context or using words refering to the future “next time”, “tomorrow”… The same goes with the Japanese future tense. For example:
(私は)買い物をする (watashi wa) kaimono wo suru: “(I) shop”, or “(I) will shop”. (私は)明日 勉強する (watashi wa) ashita benkyou suru: “Tomorrow, (I) will study”. (Japanese pronouns usually are omitted when it is clear about whom the speaker is talking.) (check the list of verbs below)

 

Japanese Past Tense

The easiness of the Japanese Verbs doesn’t stop with the present and future tense. Even the past tense is very easy to conjugate. The past tense is very similar in conjugation to the “te” form. Most of the past tenses are formed by replacing “te” with “ta”. Examine the table below:

Verbs Ending Past Form Raw Example Past Form
 
う u った tta 使う tsukau (use) 使った tsukatta
く ku いた ita 焼く yaku (burn) 焼いた yaita
ぐ gu いだ ida 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳いだ oyoida
す su した shita 示す shimesu (show) 示した shimeshita
つ tsu った tta 待つ matsu (wait) 待った matta
ぬ nu んだ nda 死ぬ shinu (die) 死んだ shinda
ぶ bu んだ nda 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼んだ yonda
む mu んだ nda 読む yomu (read) 読んだ yonda
る ru (consonant stem) った tta 走る hashiru (run) 走った hashitta
いる iru, える eru (vowel stem) いた ita, えた eta 着替える kigaeru (change clothes) 着替えた kigaeta

 

As you can see, the table above shows the Japanese verbs in the raw format and then when it’s in the past tense very straight forward method. There are some irregular forms but they’re not too many, here are some examples:
する suru (do) becomes した shita.
来る kuru (come) becomes 来た kita.
行く iku (go) becomes 行った itta.

 

Japanese Verbs in the Negative Form

To use the negative with verbs it’s very easy as well. The basic pattern is that “u” becomes “anai”, for example: 焼く yaku (to burn) becomes 焼かない yakanai (not to burn). 読む yomu (to read) becomes 読まない yomanai (not to read), easy right?

 

Japanese Verb List

One of the characteristics of the Japanese language is that the verb generally comes at the end of the sentence. Japanese has two types of regular verbs:

  • consonant stem, godan katsuyō (五段活用?), Group I, or u verbs.
  • Vowel stem, ichidan katsuyō (一段活用?), Group II, or ru verbs.

Here is a list of verbs ending in “eru” which are Group 1 Verbs:

English Group I Japanese Verbs
 
to act violently takeru
to attend on haberu
to be absorbed in fukeru
to be crooked kuneru
to be hatched (see kaeru above) kaeru
to be overturned kutsugaeru
to be slippery numeru
to become cloudy kageru
to become damp shikeru
to carve eru
to chatter daberu
to choose (see eru above) eru
to compete seru
to decrease heru
to decrease meru
to fall forward nomeru
to feel hot hoderu
to flatter omoneru
to flush, to feel hot hoteru
to grow thick shigeru
to hide, lie in ambush fuseru
to humble oneself heru
to hurry aseru
to kick keru
to lie sprawled soberu
to pick, play with seseru
to pinch tsumeru
to pinch tsuneru
to return (see kaeru above) kaeru
to ridicule azakeru
to ridicule (see eru above) eru
to rise from the dead yomigaeru
to root with the nose useru
to shine teru
to slip suberu
to soar kakeru
to talk, to chat shaberu
to temper, to refine, to knead neru
to turn over kaeru
to turn over, to wave hirugaeru
to twist hineru
to undulate uneru

 

English Group I Japanese Verbs
 
to abuse verbally nonoshiru
to be frightened tamagiru
to be greasy aburagiru
to be surprised bibiru
to become misty kishiru
to become misty kiru
to become sultry ikiru
to belittle; to despise mikubiru
to boil down iru
to boil, to seethe tagiru
to come/go – humble mairu
to curse kashiru
to cut (see kiru above) kiru
to dare to omoikiru
to edge forward nijiru
to enter hairu
to fall, sink ochiiru
to feel depressed meiru
to fiddle with ijiru
to gnaw kajiru
to go in (see iru above) iru
to gouge, scoop kujiru
to gouge, wrench kojiru
to grasp nigiru
to grip, strangle kubiru
to grumble guchiru
to gush tobashiru
to gush, spurt hotobashiru
to jeer at yajiru
to know shiru
to limit kagiru
to mess up dojiru
to mingle majiru
to muff lines tochiru
to need (see iru above) iru
to overflow minagiru
to parody, to twist mojiru
to pass by, to drop in yogiru
to pester for sebiru
to pick, dig out hojiru
to pledge chigiru
to pluck, to pick, to tear mushiru
to ponder, to contemplate omoiiru
to rebuke najiru
to roast (see iru above) iru
to run hashiru
to scatter chiru
to slander soshiru
to squeak, creak kishiru
to torment, roast ibiru
to traverse yokogiru
to twist nejiru
to twist, distort yojiru
to winnow hiru
to wrench mogiru
to wriggle sujiru

 

English Japanese Romaji English Japanese Romaji
 
Verbs
Arrive 到着 touchaku Live 生活する seikatsu suru
Ask 尋ねる tazune ru Look 見る miru
Be 存在する sonzai suru Love ai
Become 〜になる ~ ninaru Make 作る tsukuru
Begin 開始する kaishi suru Mean 意味する imi suru
Break 壊す kowasu Meet 会う au
Bring 持ってくる motte kuru Need 必要性 hitsuyousei
Build 建てる tate ru Open 開く hiraku
Burn 燃える moe ru Play 遊ぶ asobu
Buy 買う kau Push プッシュ pusshu
Call 呼ぶ yobu Read 読む yomu
Choose 選ぶ erabu Remember 思い出す omoidasu
Clean 汚れのない yogore nonai Return 戻る modoru
Close 閉じる toji ru Run 走る hashiru
Come 来る kuru Say 言う iu
Cut 切る kiru See 見る miru
Dance ダンス dansu Sell 売る uru
Do する suru Send 送る okuru
Dream yume Sit 座る suwaru
Drink 飲む nomu Sleep 眠る nemuru
Eat 食べる tabe ru Speak 話す hanasu
Fall 落ちる ochiru Take 取る toru
Find 見つける mitsu keru Talk 離す hanasu
Forget 忘れる wasure ru Teach 教える oshie ru
Get 手に入れる teniire ru Tell 教える oshie ru
Go 行く iku Think 考える kangae ru
Hear 聞く kiku Understand 理解する rikai suru
Help ヘルプ herupu Wait 待つ matsu
Kiss キス kisu Want 欲しい hoshii
Know 知っている shitte iru Work 働く hataraku
Laugh 笑う warau

 

 

 

Japanese Adjectives

 

This article has not the goal to give you a list of all the adjectives in Japanese, but to explain to you what types of adjectives exist, and how they are used.

i-adjective

These adjectives end with a –i (with some exception) and are used as follows.

Normal form : Ureshii desu

Negative form : Ureshikunai desu

Past form : Ureshikatta desu

Past Negative : Ureshikunakatta desu

When you use them in a sentence, you just place them before the noun they refer too :

Ex : Ureshii jikan. うれしい時間. An happy moment.

Kawaikunai neko. かわいくない猫. An ugly cat.

Kono party ha tanokishatta desu. このパーテイはたのしかったです。This party was fun.

Kare ga yasashikunakatta desu. 彼が優しくなかったです。He was not nice.

-Na adjective

These adjectives are used a bit differently :

Normal form : Shiawase da

Negative form : Shiawase ja nai

Past form : Shiawase datta

Past negative : shiawase ja nakatta

When you use these adjectives with a noun, you have to use the particle –na.

Ex : Kirei na inu. きれいな犬。A beautifull dog.

Shizuka na niwa. 静かな庭。A calm garden.

Kanojo ha shinsetsu datta. 彼女は親切だった。She was gentle.

Kono mise ha nigiyaka ja nakatta. この店はにぎやかじゃなかった。This shop was not popular.

Adding adjectives

When you want to use more than one adjective, you have to « link » them with the following grammar :

When the 2 adjectives are both either positives or negatives, you can use them this way :

For the i-adjective : the last one is used as usual (tense, form) but all the ones before are used in the –Te form : Ureshii > ureshikute.

Ex : Yasukute akarui heya desu. 安くて明るい部屋です。It’s a cheap and bright room.

Takakute semakute tookatta apato desu. 高くて狭くて遠かったァパトです。It was an expensive, small and far away apartment.

Yasashikunakute kawaikunai neko desu. やさしくなくてかわいくない猫です。It’s not nice bad looking cat.

For the na-adjectives : you have to link them with –de and the last one is used as usual.

Ex : Kirei de shinsetsu na hito desu. きれいで親切な人です。It’s a beautifull and gentle person.

You can link –i and –na adjectives in the same way :

Ex : Shizuka ja nakute kurai kyoushitsu desu. 静かじゃなくて暗い教室です。It’s a not calm and dark class room.

Majime de yasashii hito desu.  まじめで優しい人です。It’s a serious and nice person.

Always remember that you should link adjectives that have the same positive or negative meaning.

If you want to link adjectives with opposite meaning, you can do it as follows :

Kirei desu ga takai desu. きれいですが高いです。It’s beautiful but it’s expensive.

Adverb

The i-adjective can become adverb when you replace the last –i by –ku and using them with a verb.

Ex :

(Samui) >Samuku narimashita. 寒くなりました。It became cold.

(Tanoshikunai) > Tanoshikunaku narimashita. 楽しくなくなりました。It became not fun.

(Hayai) Hayaku tabete kudasai. 早く食べてください。Eat quickly.

(Ookii) Ookiku kaite kudasai. 大きく書いてください。Write big.

(Chiisai) Chiisaku shite kudasai. 小さくしてください。Make it small.

The –na adjective can become an adverb by using –ni instead of –na to link with a verb.

Ex :

Shizuka ni shite kudasai. 静かにしてください。Be quiet.

Japanese Adjectives Types

So Basically Japanese adjectives come in two main forms: “true” and “adjectivial nouns.” In some circles they are also known as “i adjectives” and “na adjectives” because those are the suffixes they get when they’re followed by a noun. Nevertheless, we can call them “true” and “adjectivial nouns” in this page, here are some examples of both types:

 

True Adjectives Adjectivial Nouns
 
ii: good kantan na: easy, as in easy to do
yoi: good raku na: easy, as in an easy situation; comfortable
warui: bad kara na: empty
takai: expensive; high; tall kirei na: pretty; clean
yasui: cheap kechi na: stingy (not generous)
hikui: low binbou na: poor; destitute
nagai: long hinpan na: frequent
mijikai: short benri na: convenient
katai: hard fuben na: inconvenient
yawarakai: soft busaiku na: clumsy; awkward
atsui: hot tanki na: impatient; quick-tempered
samui: cold ganko na: stubborn
tsumetai: cold byouki na: sick
hiroi: wide; spacious genki na: healthy; to be feeling well
semai: narrow; cramped shizen na: natural, proper
tsuyoi: strong yutaka na: full; abundant
yowai: weak anzen na: safe
kitsui: strong kanzen na: perfect
abunai: dangerous
akarui: bright
kurai: dark
karui: light
omoi: heavy
furui: old
hayai: fast; early
osoi: slow; late
omoshiroi: interesting

 

Here is a list of the most used Japanese adjectives, try to memorize them because they’re used very often:

English Japanese Adjectives Pronunciation
 
Bad 悪い warui
Beautiful 美しい utsukushi i
Cheap 安い yasui
Clean 汚れのない yogore nonai
Cold 冷たい tsumeta i
Different 異なる kotonaru
Difficult 困難 konnan
Early 早く hayaku
Easy 簡単な kantan na
Friendly フレンドリー furendori^
Good 良い yoi
Heavy 重い omoi
Important 重要な juuyouna
Married 結婚 kekkon
Natural 自然 shizen
Nice 素敵な suteki na
Open 開く hiraku
Polite 丁寧 teinei
Poor 貧しい mazushii
Rich リッチ ricchi
Sad 悲しい kanashi i
Simple 単純な tanjunna
Slow ゆっくりした yukkurishita
Small 小さな chiisa na
Sweet 甘い amai
Tall 背が高い sega takai
Warm 暖かい atataka i
Well 上手に jouzu ni
Worse 悪化 akka
Worst 最悪 saiaku
Wrong 間違った machigatta

 

 

 

Japanese Vocabulary

 

English

Japanese

Romaji

English

Japanese

Romaji

 

Animals

Adjectives

Bear

kuma

Angry

怒って

ikatte

Bird

tori

Bad

悪い

warui

Cat

neko

Beautiful

美しい

utsukushi i

Cow

ushi

Cheap

安い

yasui

Dog

inu

Clean

汚れのない

yogore nonai

Fish

sakana

Cold

冷たい

tsumeta i

Horse

uma

Different

異なる

kotonaru

Monkey

サル

saru

Difficult

困難

konnan

Mouse

マウス

mausu

Early

早く

hayaku

Pig

buta

Easy

簡単な

kantan na

Sheep

hitsuji

Friendly

フレンドリー

furendori^

Good

良い

yoi

Body Parts

Heavy

重い

omoi

Arm

ude

Important

重要な

juuyouna

Back

後ろの

ushiro no

Married

結婚

kekkon

Chest

金庫

kinko

Natural

自然

shizen

Ear

mimi

Nice

素敵な

suteki na

Eye

アイ

ai

Open

開く

hiraku

Face

kao

Polite

丁寧

teinei

Finger

yubi

Poor

貧しい

mazushii

Fingers

yubi

Rich

リッチ

ricchi

Foot

ashi

Sad

悲しい

kanashi i

Hair

kami

Simple

単純な

tanjunna

Hand

te

Slow

ゆっくりした

yukkurishita

Head

atama

Small

小さな

chiisa na

Heart

心臓

shinzou

Sweet

甘い

amai

Leg

ashi

Tall

背が高い

sega takai

Mouth

kuchi

Warm

暖かい

atataka i

Neck

kubi

Well

上手に

jouzu ni

Nose

hana

Worse

悪化

akka

Shoulder

kata

Worst

最悪

saiaku

Stomach

i

Wrong

間違った

machigatta

Teeth

ha

Tongue

shita

Tooth

ha

English

Japanese

Romaji

English

Japanese

Romaji

 

 

 

Objects

Food

 

Bathroom

バスルーム

basuru^mu

Apple

リンゴ

ringo

 

Bed

ベッド

beddo

Apricot

あんず

anzu

 

Bedroom

寝室

shinshitsu

Banana

バナナ

banana

 

Ceiling

天井

tenjou

Bread

パン

pan

 

Chair

椅子

isu

Breakfast

朝食

choushoku

 

Clothes

衣類

irui

Butter

バター

bata^

 

Coat

コート

ko^to

Candy

キャンディ

kyandei

 

Cup

カップ

kappu

Carrot

ニンジン

ninjin

 

Desk

デスク

desuku

Cheese

チーズ

chi^zu

 

Dress

ドレス

doresu

Chicken

チキン

chikin

 

Floor

toko

Dessert

デザート

deza^to

 

Fork

フォーク

fo^ku

Dinner

夕食

yuushoku

 

Furniture

家具

kagu

Fish

sakana

 

Glass

ガラス

garasu

Food

食べ物

tabemono

 

Hat

帽子

boushi

Fruit

フルーツ

furu^tsu

 

House

ie

Grapes

ブドウ

budou

 

Ink

インク

inku

Ice cream

アイスクリーム

aisukuri^mu

 

Jacket

ジャケット

jaketto

Lamb

子羊

kohitsuji

 

Kitchen

台所

daidokoro

Lemon

レモン

remon

 

Knife

ナイフ

naifu

Lunch

昼食

chuushoku

 

Lamp

ランプ

ranpu

Meal

食事

shokuji

 

Letter

手紙

tegami

Meat

精肉

seiniku

 

Map

地図

chizu

Onion

タマネギ

tamanegi

 

Newspaper

新聞

shinbun

Orange

オレンジ

orenji

 

Notebook

ノート

no^to

Pork

豚肉

butaniku

 

Pants

パンツ

pantsu

Potato

ジャガイモ

jagaimo

 

Paper

kami

Salad

サラダ

sarada

 

Pen

ペン

pen

Salt

shio

 

Pencil

鉛筆

enpitsu

Sandwich

サンドイッチ

sandoicchi

 

Pharmacy

薬局

yakkyoku

Sausage

ソーセージ

so^se^ji

 

Picture

写真

shashin

Soup

スープ

su^pu

 

Plate

プレート

pure^to

Sugar

砂糖

satou

 

Refrigerator

冷蔵庫

reizouko

Supper

夕食

yuushoku

 

Restaurant

レストラン

resutoran

Turkey

トルコ

toruko

 

Roof

屋根

yane

Vegetables

野菜

yasai

 

Room

部屋

heya

 

Rug

敷物

shikimono

Miscellaneous Objects

 

Scissors

はさみ

hasami

Art

アート

a^to

 

Shampoo

シャンプー

shanpu^

Book

hon

 

Shirt

シャツ

shatsu

Dictionary

辞書

jisho

 

Shoes

kutsu

Geography

地理

chiri

 

Soap

せっけん

sekken

History

歴史

rekishi

 

Socks

靴下

kutsushita

Math

数学

suugaku

 

Spoon

スプーン

supu^n

Music

音楽

ongaku

 

Table

テーブル

te^buru

Science

科学

kagaku

 

Toilet

トイレ

toire

Bank

銀行

ginkou

 

Toothbrush

歯ブラシ

haburashi

Beach

浜辺

hamabe

 

Toothpaste

歯磨き粉

hamigakiko

By bicycle

自転車で

jitensha de

 

Towel

タオル

taoru

By bus

バスで

basu de

 

T-shirt

Tシャツ

shatsu

By car

車の場合

kuruma no baai

 

Umbrella

kasa

By train

電車で

densha de

 

Underwear

下着

shitagi

Cafe

カフェ

kafe

 

Wall

kabe

Country

kuni

 

Wallet

ウォレット

uoretto

Desert

砂漠

sabaku

 

Window

ウィンドウ

uindou

Flowers

hana

 

Football

フットボール

futtobo^ru

 

People

Forest

mori

 

Aunt

叔母

oba

Game

ゲーム

ge^mu

 

Baby

赤ちゃん

akachan

Garden

niwa

 

Brother

兄弟

kyoudai

House

ie

 

Cousin

いとこ

itoko

Island

shima

 

Daughter

musume

Lake

mizuumi

 

Dentist

歯医者

haisha

Library

図書館

toshokan

 

Doctor

医師

ishi

Mountain

yama

 

Father

chichi

Movies

映画

eiga

 

Granddaughter

孫娘

magomusume

Ocean

オーシャン

o^shan

 

Grandfather

祖父

sofu

Office

オフィス

ofisu

 

Grandmother

祖母

sobo

On foot

徒歩で

toho de

 

Grandson

mago

Player

プレーヤー

pure^ya^

 

Husband

otto

River

kawa

 

Mother

haha

Sea

umi

 

Nephew

oi

Soccer

サッカー

sakka^

 

Niece

mei

Supermarket

スーパーマーケット

su^pa^ma^ketto

 

Nurse

看護師

kango shi

Swimming pool

スイミングプール

suimingupu^ru

 

Policeman

警官

keikan

Theater

劇場

gekijou

 

Postman

ポスト

posuto

Tree

ki

 

Professor

教授

kyouju

 

Son

息子

musuko

 

Teacher

先生

sensei

 

Uncle

叔父

oji

 

Wife

tsuma

 
 

Verbs

 

Arrive

到着

touchaku

Live

生活する

seikatsu suru

 

Ask

尋ねる

tazune ru

Look

見る

miru

 

Be

存在する

sonzai suru

Love

ai

 

Become

〜になる

~ ninaru

Make

作る

tsukuru

 

Begin

開始する

kaishi suru

Mean

意味する

imi suru

 

Break

壊す

kowasu

Meet

会う

au

 

Bring

持ってくる

motte kuru

Need

必要性

hitsuyousei

 

Build

建てる

tate ru

Open

開く

hiraku

 

Burn

燃える

moe ru

Play

遊ぶ

asobu

 

Buy

買う

kau

Push

プッシュ

pusshu

 

Call

呼ぶ

yobu

Read

読む

yomu

 

Choose

選ぶ

erabu

Remember

思い出す

omoidasu

 

Clean

汚れのない

yogore nonai

Return

戻る

modoru

 

Close

閉じる

toji ru

Run

走る

hashiru

 

Come

来る

kuru

Say

言う

iu

 

Cut

切る

kiru

See

見る

miru

 

Dance

ダンス

dansu

Sell

売る

uru

 

Do

する

suru

Send

送る

okuru

 

Dream

yume

Sit

座る

suwaru

 

Drink

飲む

nomu

Sleep

眠る

nemuru

 

Eat

食べる

tabe ru

Speak

話す

hanasu

 

Fall

落ちる

ochiru

Take

取る

toru

 

Find

見つける

mitsu keru

Talk

離す

hanasu

 

Forget

忘れる

wasure ru

Teach

教える

oshie ru

 

Get

手に入れる

teniire ru

Tell

教える

oshie ru

 

Go

行く

iku

Think

考える

kangae ru

 

Hear

聞く

kiku

Understand

理解する

rikai suru

 

Help

ヘルプ

herupu

Wait

待つ

matsu

 

Kiss

キス

kisu

Want

欲しい

hoshii

 

Know

知っている

shitte iru

Work

働く

hataraku

 

Laugh

笑う

warau

 

 

 

 

Japanese Sayings

 

Japanese Sayings and Wisdom Words

悪妻は百年の不作。 (Akusai wa hyaku-nen no fusaku) Literally: A bad wife spells a hundred years of bad harvest.
Meaning: A bad wife is a ruin of her husband.

残り物には福がある。 (Nokorimono ni wa fuku ga aru) Literally: Luck exists in the leftovers.
Meaning: There is luck in the last helping.

虎穴に入らずんば虎子を得ず。 (Koketsu ni irazunba koji wo ezu) Literally: If you do not enter the tiger’s cave, you will not catch its cub.
Meaning: Nothing ventured, nothing gained. / You can’t do anything without risking something.

夏炉冬扇 (karo tōsen) Literally: Summer heater winter fan
Meaning: Something which is out of season and therefore rendered useless.

花鳥風月 (Kachou Fuugetsu) Literally: Flower, Bird, Wind, Moon
Meaning: Experience the beauties of nature, and in doing so learn about yourself.

起死回生 (kishi kaisei) Literally: Wake from death and return to life
Meaning: To come out of a desperate situation and make a complete return in one sudden burst.

自業自得 (Jigou Jitoku) Literally: One’s Act, One’s profit/Advantage.
Meaning: That’s what you get, Just desserts, You reap what you sow.

瓜田李下 (kaden rika) Literally: Melon field, under a plum tree
Meaning: Stepping into a melon field, standing under a plum tree (, such behavior causes misunderstanding that you want to steal those fruits); implying that you must avoid actions which could be taken on a bad faith.

晴天の霹靂 (Seiten no heki-reki) Literally: Thunderclap from a clear sky.
Meaning: A bolt from the blue. / A complete surprise.

猿も木から落ちる。 (Saru mo ki kara ochiru) Literally: Even monkeys fall from trees.
Meaning: Everyone makes mistakes. / Nobody’s perfect.

蓼食う虫も好き好き (Tade kuu mushi mo sukizuki) Literally: There are even bugs that eat knotweed.
Meaning: There’s no accounting for taste. / To each his own.

井の中の蛙大海を知らず。 (I no naka no kawazu taikai wo shirazu) Literally: A frog in a well does not know the great sea.
Meaning: People are satisfied to judge things by their own narrow experience, never knowing of the wide world outside.

蛙の子は蛙。 (Kaeru no ko wa kaeru) Literally: Child of a frog is a frog.
Meaning: Like father, like son.

鳶が鷹を産む。 (Tonbi (or Tobi) ga taka wo umu) Literally: A kite breeding a hawk.
Meaning: A splendid child born from common parents.

覆水盆に帰らず。 (Fukusui bon ni kaerazu) Literally: Spilt water will not return to the tray.
Meaning: It’s no use crying over spilt milk. / A separated couple can never go back to as it was.

二兎を追う者は一兎をも得ず。 (Ni usagi wo ou mono wa ichi usagi wo mo ezu) Literally: One who chases after two hares won’t catch even one.
Meaning: Trying to do two things at once will make you fail in both.

継続は力なり。 (Keizoku wa chikara nari) Literally: Continuance (also) is power/strength.
Meaning: Don’t give up. Just continuing to hold on will yield/reveal strength and power. Continuing on after a setback is its own kind of strength. Perseverance is power.

門前の小僧習わぬ経を読む。 (Mon zen no kozō narawanu kyō wo yomu) Literally: An apprentice near a temple will recite the scriptures untaught.
Meaning: The environment makes our characters.

知らぬが仏 (Shiranu ga hotoke) Literally: Not knowing is Buddha.
Meaning: Ignorance is bliss. / It’s better to not know the truth.

見ぬが花 (Minu ga hana) Literally: Not seeing is a flower.
Meaning: Things will never be as you imagine, so you’re better off not seeing them. / Reality can’t compete with imagination.

猫に小判 (neko ni koban) Literally: gold coins to a cat.
Meaning: Giving a gift to someone who can’t appreciate it; A useless gesture; “Pearls before swine.”

猫に鰹節 (neko ni katsuobushi) Literally: fish to a cat.
Meaning: A situation where one can not let their guard down (because the cat can’t resist stealing your fish).

七転び八起き (nanakorobi yaoki) Literally: stumbling seven times but recovering eight.
Meaning: perseverance is better than defeat.

三日坊主 (mikka bōzu) Literally: a monk for (just) three days.
Meaning: Giving up at the first sign of difficulty.

案ずるより産むが易し。 (Anzuru yori umu ga yasashi) Literally: Giving birth to a baby is easier than worrying about it.
Meaning: Fear is greater than the danger. / An attempt is sometimes easier than expected.

馬鹿は死ななきゃ治らない。 (Baka wa shinanakya naoranai) Literally: Unless an idiot dies, he won’t be cured.
Meaning: Only death will cure a fool. / You can’t fix stupid.

出る杭は打たれる。 (Deru kui wa utareru) Literally: The stake that sticks out gets hammered down.
Meaning: Don’t make waves / Apply your effort where it will do the most good / Excellence breeds envy and/or enmity / It’s better to conform than to stick out.

挨拶は時の氏神。 (Aisatsu wa toki no ujigami) Literally: A greeting is the local deity who turns up providentially.
Meaning: Arbitration in a quarrel is a godsend.

秋茄子は嫁に食わすな。 (Akinasu wa yome ni kuwasuna) Literally: Don’t let your daughter-in-law eat your autumn eggplants.
Meaning: Don’t let yourself be taken advantage of.

花よりだんご (hana yori dango) Literally: dumplings over flowers
Meaning: The person to whom it is directed prefers practical gain to aesthetics.

水に流す (mizu ni nagasu) Literally: let flow in the water
Meaning: Forgive and forget; water under the bridge

雨降って地固まる (ame futte chi katamaru) Literally: after the rain, earth hardens
Meaning: Adversity builds character./After a storm, things will stand on more solid ground than they did before.

油を売る (abura o uru) Literally: to sell oil
Meaning: to spend time chitchatting or to waste time in the middle of a task.

竜頭蛇尾 (ryuutou dabi) Literally: dragon, head, snake, tail
Meaning: Anticlimax, the beginning is like a dragons head, great and majestic and the ending is like a snakes tail, tiny and pathetic.

晴耕雨読 (seiko udoku) Literally: clear sky, cultivate, rainy, reading
Meaning: Farm when it’s sunny, read when it rains.

四面楚歌 (Shimen soka) Literally: Chu songs on all sides
Meaning: Defeat is clear; Situation is desperate beyond hope.

十人十色 (jūnin toiro) Literally: ten men, ten colors
Meaning: To each his/her own. / Different strokes for different folks.

三日坊主 (mikka bouzu) Literally: 3 day monk.
Meaning: Someone who gives up easily or is adverse to work.

大同小異 (daidō shōi) Literally: big similarity, small difference
Meaning: Similarities outweigh the differences.

一石二鳥 (isseki nichō) Literally: one stone, two birds
Meaning: Killing two birds with one stone; Doing 2 things with one action.

雲散霧消 (unsan mushō) Literally: scattered clouds, disappearing mist
Meaning: Disappear without a trace.

我田引水 (gaden insui) Literally: pulling water to my own rice paddy
Meaning: Doing/speaking about things in a way to benefit yourself.

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Other Japanese Proverbs

Ayamachitewa aratamuruni habakaru koto nakare. If you make a mistake, don’t hesitate to correct it.

Aho ni toriau baka. It is foolish to deal with a fool.

Aite no nai kenka wa denkinu. One cannot quarrel without an opponent.

Ame futte ji katamaru. Rained on ground hardens (Adversity builds character).

Asu no koto o ieba, tenjo de nezumi ga warau. Talk about things of tomorrow and the mice inside the ceiling laugh (Nobody knows what tomorrow might bring).

Baka ga atte riko ga hikitatsu. Due to the presence of fools wise people stand out.

Baka na ko hodo kawaii. The more stupid the child the dearer it is.

Bushi wa kuwanedo taka-yoji. A samurai, even when he has not eaten, uses his toothpick.

Chisa wa madowazu, yusha wa osorezu. A wise man does not lose his way, a brave man does not fear.

Deta-toko shobu. To gamble as the dice fall.

Doku kurawaba sara made. If eating poison finish up the plate (or, If eating poison don’t forget to lick the plate)..

Gaden insui. To draw water into one’s own rice field

Inu o mikka kaeba san-nen on o wasurenu, neko wa san-nen katte mikka de on o wasureru. Feed a dog for three days and it is gratefull for three years. Feed a cat for three years and it forgets after three days.

Ippai-me wa hito sake o nomi, nihai-me wa sake sake o nomi, sanbai-me wa sake hito o nomu. With the first glass a man drinks wine, with the second glass the wine drinks the wine, with the third glass the wine drinks the man.

Koji ma Oshi. Good things, many devils.

Ko-in ya no gotoshi. Time flies like an arrow.

Kuni yaburete, sanga ari. The country is in ruins, and there are still mountains and rivers.

Kokai saki ni tatazu. Repentance never comes first.

Me wa kuchi hodo ni mono o ii. The eyes speak as much as the mouth.(love needs no words)

Me wa kokoro no kagami. The eyes are the mirror of the soul.

Mime yori kokoro. Heart rather than appearance.

Mimi o oute, suzu o nusumu. Cover the ears and steal the bell.

Migi no mimi kara hidari no mimi. to go in the right ear and out the left.

Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku made. The soul of a three year old until a hundred.

Mizukara boketsu o horu. to dig one’s grave

Muri ga toreba, dori hikkomu. If unreason comes, reason goes.

Muyo no cho-butsu. a useless long object

Naite kurasu mo issho, waratte kurasu mo issho. It is the same life whether we spend it crying or laughing.

Nana korobi, ya oki. to fall seven times, to rise eight times

Nurenu saki koso tsuyu omo itoe. People want to avoid the dew before they become wet.

Shunsho ikkoku, atai senkin. Half an hour in a spring evening is worth a thousand gold pieces.

Sode fure-au mo tasho no en. Even when our sleeves brush together it is our karma.

Sugitaru wa nao oyobazaru ga gotoshi. Let what is past flow away downstream.

Tazei ni buzei. Few against many.

Nou aru taka wa tsume wo kakusu. The hawk with talent hides its talons (The person who knows most often says least).

Hotoke no kao mo san-do made. Even the Buddha’s face, only until the third [slap], meaning even the most mild-mannered person will lose his/her temper eventually.

Saru mo ki kara ochiru. Even monkees fall from trees (Even an expert can make mistakes).

Tonari no shibafu wa aoi. The neighbour’s lawn is green (The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence).

Gou ni itte wa, gou ni shitagae. Entering the village, obey the village (When in Rome, do as the Romans do)

Iwanu ga hana. Not-speaking is the flower (Silence is golden)

Fuku sui bon ni kaerazu. Overturned water doesn’t return to the tray (There’s no use crying over spilt milk).

Atama kakushite, shiri kakusazu. Cover your head, and not cover your bottom (Don’t cover your head but expose your bottom, ie: you have to be careful not to expose your weak point while attempting to protect yourself).

Uma no mimi ni nembutsu. A sutra (Buddhist prayer) in a horse’s ear (A wasted effort).

Baka mo ichi-gei. Even a fool has one talent (Even a fool may be good at something).

Neko ni koban. A coin to a cat (Don’t offer things to people who are incapable of appreciating them).

Yabu wo tsutsuite hebi wo dasu. Poke a bush, a snake comes out (Let sleeping dogs lie).

 

 

 

To Give Advice

 

There are many ways to give advice in Japanese :

-Tara form + ii desu

A good way to ask or give  advice is to use this grammar :

Miru > Mitara ii desu

For ex : Dono eiga wo mitara ii desu ka. どの映画を見たらいいですか。Which movie should I watch ?

Q. Dou shitara ii desu ka. A. Matara ii to omoimasu. Q.どうしたらいいですか。A.待ったらいいと思います。Q. What should I do ? A. I think you should wait.

This way to give advice means you are not 100% sure of the advice you offer. Basically, you are just giving your thought.

 

Ask to do Something

 

This grammar will allow you to ask to someone to do something or to not do something.

Te form + kudasai て形+下さい

To ask someone to do something, use the Te form of a verb (oshiemasu = oshiete) and add kudasai.

For example:

Sumimasen ga, denwa bangou wo oshiete kudasai. すみませんが、電話番号を教えて下さい。Excuse me, please tell me your phone number.

Hidari he magatte kudasai. 左へ曲がってください。Please turn on your left.

NAI Form + De kudasai ない形+で下さい

If you want to ask someone to not do something, you should use the following grammar :

For example :

Tabaco wo suwanai de kudasai. タバコを吸わないで下さい。Please don’t smoke.

Koko ni tabenai de kudasai. ここに食べないで下さい。Please don’t eat here.

Formal form

If you want to ask in a more formal way, less polite, just take off the Kudasai in both forms. You can use it with friends or family to ask them to do or not do something.

For example:

Tsumetaku naru kara hayaku tabeni kite ! 冷たくなるから早く食べに来て。It’s getting cold, so come eat quickly !

Mada hairanai de. まだ入らないで。Don’t come in yet.

 

Authorization

 

If you want to ask for the permission to do something, you can use the following grammar.

Te form + mo ii desu ka.

For example :

Q- Tabete mo ii desu ka. 食べてもいいですか。Is it ok to eat ?

  • Ii desu yo. It’s ok !

This form of grammar i s used as soon as you want to ask  permission for something. You can also use it in the negative form : to ask if not doing something is ok. Use the verb as follows : take the NAI (tabenai) form, take the i away and add Kute mo ii desu (tabenakute mo ii desu).

For example:

Q- Ashita kaisha ni ikinakute mo ii desu ka.明日会社にいきなくてもいいですか。Tomorow is it ok if I don’t go to the office ?

  • Sore ha dame desu. それはだめです。This is not ok.

In the same way, if you want to grant the authorization to someone to do something, proceed with the same grammar.

For example:

Watashi no shashin wo totte mo ii desu yo. 私の写真を取ってもいいですよ。You can take my picture!

 

 

Causality

 

To imply one thing causes another, you can use the following grammar :

– Kara

You can translate this particle as « so », and you have to use it after the cause it’s referring to.

For example :

Ima samui kara dekakemasen. 今寒いから出かけません。It’s cold now , so I don’t go out.

Tabun osoku narimasu kara saiki ni tabete kudasai. たぶん襲うなるから先に食べてください。I might be late, so please eat first.

Q. Doushite kono jishou wo kaimashita ka. A. Benri desu kara. どうしてこの辞書を買いましたか。便利ですから。Q. Why did you buy this dictionnary ? A. Because it’s useful.

– No de

It has the same meaning than – Kara, and it’s used the exact same way, but it’s a more polite way of saying things.

The only change is that you can not use –masu or –masen form before -no de (while you can before) –kara.

Ex : Jikan ga nai no de ikemasen. 時間がないので行けません。I don’t have the time so I can’t go.

Yasumi no hi jan ai no de hatarakanakereba narimasen. 休みの日じゃないので働かなければなりません。It’s not a day off so I must work.

– naze nara

This grammar is only used to answer a question (often « doushite… ? or naze…. ? »). It’s pretty formal.  It means « because » and it’s used as follows:

Ex :

Q. Naze nihon ni sumi ni kimashita ka ? A. Naze nara, nihonjin no kanojo to issho ni sumitakatta desu. なぜ日本に住みに来ましたか。なぜなら、日本人の彼女と一緒に住みたかったです。 Why did you came live in Japan ? Because I wanted to live with my Japanese girlfriend.

 

Conditional

 

There are many ways to express the conditional in Japanese. In this article, we will explore the easiest way to do so.

-Tara Form

This grammar is very helpful to express that something is conditional. This is the easiest way, which can be used almost all the time.

The meaning is that, if the first condition is achieved, maybe the second will be achieved.

Take the verb/adjective in its TA form, and add –Ra.

For ex : Miru > Mita > Mitara.

Nomu > Nonda > Nondara.

Yasui > Yasukatta > Yasukattara.

Dame desu > Dame datta > Dame dattara.
For the negative tense, take the verb in its –nakatta form, and add –Ra.

For ex : Miru > Minakatta > Minakattara.

Nomu > Nomanakatta > Nomanakattara.

Yasui > Yasukunkatta > Yasukunakattara.

Dame desu > Dame ja nakatta > Dame ja nakattara.

Examples :

Ame ga futtara, ikimasen. 雨が降ったら、行きません。If it rains, I won’t go.

Jikan ga nakattara, eiga wo mimasen. 時間がなかったら、映画をみません。If I don’t have the time, I won’t watch the movie.

Hima dattara, asobini ikimasu. 暇だったら、遊びに行きます。If I have free time, I’m going to play.

Yasukattara, ano mise de kaimasu. 安かったら、あの店で買います。If it’s cheap, I’ll buy in this shop.

Moshi

In the case you would like to stress even more the conditional form, use Moshi (If) as follows :

Moshi yasukattara, kaimasu. もし安かったら、買います。If (in the case that) it would be cheap, I’ll buy.

Temporality

The Tara form can also mean you’ll do something when something will be finished.
For example:

Uchi he kaettara, sugu gohan wo tabemasu. 家へ帰ったら、すぐご飯を食べます。After I come back home, I will eat soon after.

Gohan wo tabetarra, eiga miyou. ご飯をたべったら、映画を見よう。After we eat, let’s watch the movie.

 

Describe a State: Intentional or Not

 

We have seen other uses of –TE Imasu and –TE arimasu. The following grammar seems similar, but is more subtile. If you want to describe something, like that the window is open or the schedule is pinned on the board, you can do it with this grammar :

-Te form + Imasu to describe a state resulting from an intentional action

This grammar can translate as the description of an action that was done.

For example :

Mado ga hakete imasu. 窓が開けています。The window is open (meaning you know someone opened it).

Air Con ga tsukete imasu. エーコンが付けています。The air conditioner is on (meaning you know someone powered it on).

-Te form + Arimasu to describe a state with no intenational action

This grammar is used to describe a fact you can see.

For example :

Mado ga shimate arimasu.窓が閉まってあります。The window is closed (you are just describing the fact, as you don’t know if it’s intentional).

Air con ga kiete arimasu. エーコンが消えてあります。The air conditioner is off (you are just describing the fact, as you don’t know if it’s intentional).

 

 

Different use of -Te imasu

 

-Te form + Imasu for the continuity.

If you want to express you are always doing something, on a regular basis or that an action is continuing in time (like the fact that you are living somewhere), you can use this grammatical form.

Example : Tokyo ni sunde imasu. 東京に住んでいます。I live in Tokyo.

Apple ni hataraite imasu. Apple に働いています。 I work at Apple.

In the same way, if you do something everyday, or very regularly, and that you are continuing this activity, you can use the same grammar.

Example: Mainichi kodomo wo mukaeni ite imasu. 毎日子どもを迎えに行っています。Every day, I go pick up the kids.

Maishu umi ni oyoide imasu. 毎週海に泳いでいます。I swim in the sea every week.

-Te + imasu for Progressive present              

You’ll also see this grammar to express the progressive present.

Ex : Kanojo ha nani shite imasu ka. Ima tabete imasu. 彼女は何していますか。今食べています。What is she doing ? Now, she is eating.

 

 

Even if

 

If you want to express the idea that « even if » something happens, you will do or not do something else, you can use the following grammar.

For the verb : -Te and -Nakute mo

For the positive form (even if xyz happens) : Take a verb in its Te form and add mo (mite mo).

For the negative (even if yzx does not happen) : –Nai form (minai), take the –i away and add –nakute mo (minakute mo).

Ex : Tabenakute mo gakkou ni ikimasu. 食べなくても学校に行きます。Even if I don’t eat, I’m going to school.

Osake wo nomanakute mo tanoshinde imasu. お酒を飲まなくても楽しんでいます。Even if I don’t drink alcohol, I’m having fun.

Ikura kangaete mo, zenzen wakarimasen. いくら考えても、全然分かりません。However much I think about it, I still understand nothing. 

Tabete mo mada onaka ga sukimashita. 食べてもまだおなかがすきました。Even if ate, I’m still hungry.

For the i-adjective 

For the i-adjective, proceed as with the verb :

-Te form + mo : ureshii > ureshikute mo

-nakute form + mo : ureshii > ureshikunakute mo

Takakute mo kono uchi wo kaitai desu. 高くてもこの家を買いたいです。Even if it’s expensive, I want to buy this house.

Tanoshikunakute mo ano party ni ikanakereba narimasen. 楽しくなくてもあのパータイに行かなければなりません。Even if it’s not fun, I have to go to this party.

For the –Na adjective and the noun

Take the normal form and add –de mo.

For ex :

Benri demo tsukaimasen. 便利でも使いません。Even if this is easy to use, I don’t use it.

Nichiyoubi de mo hatarakimasu. 日曜日でも働きます。Even if it’s Sunday, I work.

 

 

Describe a change

 

Using an adjective and the verb naru, you can express a change.

-Ku narimasu

This grammar is used with the i-adjective to notify a change in a state.  The last -i turns into –ku.

Kyou kara motto samuku narimasu. 今日からもっと寒くなります。From today, it becomes colder.

Kanojo ha atama ga yoku narimashita. 彼女は頭がよくなりました。 She became smarter.

Nedan ga yasuku narimashita. 値段が安くなりました。 The price became cheaper.

In the same way, you can use some verb ending by –i (negative form, -tai form).

Toukyou ni ikitaku narimashita.  東京に行きたくなりました。I now want to go to Tokyo.

Haha ga genki janaku narimashita.   母が元気じゃなくなりました。My mom is now not in good health.

Ni narimasu

With the Na-adjective, you can use the following grammar : change the na by ni and use the adjective.

For example :

Haha ga genki ni narimasu. 母が元気になります。 The health of my mother is getting better (literally : My mom is becoming in good health).

Kinou kara hima ni narimashita. 昨日から暇になりました。From yesterday, it’s free time.

Takusan renshu shitarra jouzu ni narimasu yo. たくさん練習したら上手になりますよ。If you exercise  a lot, you will become good.

 

Imasu and Arimasu

 

Imasu and Arimasu are both used to express the idea « There is ». They differ a little bit though.

-Ga Imasu

When you speak about human or living things, you have to use Imasu.

Ex : Ie ni nanin imasu ka. Futari ga imasu. 家に何人いますか。二人がいます。How many people are in the house. There are two people.

Niwa ni neko ga imasu. 庭に猫がいます。There is a cat in the garden.

-Ga Arimasu

When you speak about a non living thing or a place, you have to use Arimasu.

Ex : Eigakan ha doko ni arimasu ka. Chikaku ni arimasu yo.  映画館はどこにありますか。近くにありますよ。Where is the theater? It’s not far!

Tsukue no ue ha nani arimasu ka. Hon to kasa ga arimasu. 机の上何ありますか。本と傘があります。What is there on the office ? There is a book and an umbrella.

 

 

Intention to do something and schedule

 

There are three easy ways to express the idea that you have the intention to do something or that you have something to do already.

Ou form + omotte imasu おう+と思っています

This grammar allows you to express you have planned to do something. You have to use the Ou form of the verb, and add To omotte imasu.

For example :

Ashita eiga mini ikou to omotte imasu. 明日映画見に行こうと思っています。Tomorow, I planned to go to see a movie.

Raishu yasumi ni narimashita kara yukkuri shyou to omotte imasu. 来週休みになりましたからゆっくりしようと思っています。 Next week will be free time, so I planned to take some rest.

Tsumori desu つもりです

If you want to say that you have the intention to do something, you can use the verb in its normal form and add Tsumori desu.

For example :

Watashi ha nihon ni sumu tsumori desu. 私はずっと日本に住むつもりです。I have the intention to live in Japan.

Watashi ha kuni he kaeranai tsumori desu. 私は国へ帰らないつもりです。I don’t have the intention to go back to my country.

Yotei desu 予定です

With this grammar you can state that you have something, or that something is, scheduled. You need to take the verb in its normal form + Yotei desu. For nouns, add No yotei desu.

For ex :

Hikouki ha 10ji ni iku yotei desu. 飛行機は10時に行く予定です。The plane is scheduled for a departure at 10h.

Q- Kyou ha kaigi sanka suru yotei desu ga, itsu made desu ka. 今日は会議に参加する予定ですが,いつまでですか。Today I have a meeting I’m scheduled to participate in, but when will it be over  ?

  • 11ji made no yotei desu. 11時までの予定です。It’s scheduled to end at 11h.

 

Koto Arimasu

 

This grammar allows you to state that you already did something in your life before. Instead of just using the past form of the verb, you have to use the verb in the TA form, and add Koto arimasu ことあります。You can write koto in kanji (事) or just in hiragana.

For example :

Q- Anata ha nihon ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. A- Hai, arimasu yo. Q-あなたは日本行ったことがありますか。A- はい、ありますよ。You already went to Japan ? Yes, I did !

Watashi ha Sushi wo tabeta koto ga arimasu. 私はすしを食べたことがあります。I already  ate some sushi.

Kanojo ha sumo wo mita koto ga arimasen. Boku ha mita koto ga arimasu yo kedo. 彼女はすもを見たことがありません。僕は見たことがありますけど。 She has never seen a game of sumo. But I already have.

You can also express the fact you never did even once, or you did a lot already, using the same grammar.

For example :

Ichi do ramen wo tabeta koto ga arimasen. 一度ラーメンを食べたことがありません。I never ate ramen even once.

Q- Nihon ha hajimete desu ka. A- iie, 3nen mae ni ichi do kita koto ga arimasu. Q- 日本は初めてですか。A- いいえ、3年前に一度来たことがあります。Q- Is it the first time you come to Japan ? A- No, I already came once three years ago.

 

-Ni Ikikmasu

 

To express that you are going, or went, to do something.

The rule is simple, take the verb in MASU form (for ex : Asobimasu), take the masu away and replace it with ni ikimasu :  Asobini ikimasu. 遊びに行きます。

This grammar is very useful.

For example :

Shigoto ato de issho ni tabeni ikimasen ka. 仕事あと一緒にで食べに行きませんか。Do you want to go to eat together after work ?

Ima pan wo kani ikimasu. 今パンを買いに行ます。I’m going to buy some bread now.

Kinou omoshiroi eiga wo mini ikimashita. 昨日面白い映を見に行きました。Yesterday I went to see a funny movie.

When you use this grammer with the verb Shimasu (します), you can both apply the rule or get rid of the verb and only use Ni.
For example :

Kaimono shini ikimasu. 買い物しに行きます。 I ‘m going to do some shopping.

Kaimono ni ikimasu. 買い物に行きます。I’m going to do some shopping.

Sanpo shini ikimashita. 散歩しに行きました。I went for a walk.

Sanpo ni ikimashita.  散歩に行きました。I went for a walk.

As you can see, you can use this grammar both for questioning and answering, and with all diffrent forms of a verb :

Issho ni ryouko shini ittara, tanoshi to omoimasu. 一緒に旅行しに行ったら楽しいと思います。If you go travelling together, I think it will be fun.

Eiga mini ikou ka. 英が見に行こうか。Let’s go to see a movie.

Kare to tabeni ikitai desu. 彼と食べに行きたいです。I want to go to eat with him.

You will hear it, and useit, alot, so practice.

 

Obligation and Rule

 

There are many ways to state an obligation, a rule, or to forbid in Japanese.

Banning TE form + ha ikemasen

To express a ban, or to forbid something, you can use the following grammar :

Take the verb in its TE form, and then add ha ikemasen.

Example : (Miru) Mite ha ikemasen (You can’t look.)

Gakkou de tabete ha ikemasen. 学校で食べてはいけません。You can’t eat in the school.

Koko ni tomate ha ikemasen. ここに止まってはいけません。You can’t park here.

Rule  -nakereba narimasen

To express an obligation, which comes from a ruling or an external obligation, you can use the following :

Take the –Nai form of a verb (Miru -> Minai), take the -i away and add –nakereba narimasen (minakereba narimasen).

Shukudai wo shinakereba narimasen. 宿題をしなければなりません。You must do your homework.

Gakkou ni ikanakereba narimasen. 学校に行かなければなりません。You have to go to school.

If you speak to a kid, you can use the following grammar, which means the same thing : take the NAI form (miru -> minai) take the –i away and add –sai (minasai).

Shukudai wo shinasai. 宿題をしなさい。You must do your homework.

Jibun no heya wo katazukenasai. 自分の部屋をかたずけなさい。You have to clean your own room.

Personnal obligation

This grammar allows you to express something that seems an obligation for you. This is not to express a general rule, just your situation (practical or mindset).

Take the NAI form (miru -> minai), put the –i away and add –kya (minakya).

For example :

Harry potter no eiga wo minakya. ハリポッタの映画を見なきゃ。I have to watch the movie Harry Potter.

Kaigi ni ikanakya. 会議に行かなきゃ。I have to go to the meeting.

To Give an Order

 

The way to give an order in Japanese is considered a rude way of talking. There are many ways to ask something, and usually if you want someone to do something, you will just advise him to do it.

But in certain cases, this grammar is very useful, because it’s quick to use and gives no misunderstanding on its meaning.

Ordering to do something

You can form this grammar with a verb as follows :

For the first group : take the MASU form, and transfert the –i to the –e corresponding.

Yarimasu    Yare

Asobimasu  Asobe

Yomimasu    Yome

Ikimasu         Ike

Shinimasu     Shine

Kakimasu      Kake

Suwarimasu  Suware

Machimasu    Mate

For the second group : take the MASU form away and add –ro.

Sagemasu  Sagero

Demasu      Dero

Mimasu      Miro

Orimasu      Oriro

For the third group :

Kimasu           Koi

Shimasu         Shiro

Ordering to not do something

This form is different than the one to forbid to do something. Here, you give a negative order, like don’t move, don’t speak, don’t eat…

For all the verbs for all the groups, this grammar is the same : Take the normal form and add –na.

Yaru             Yaru na

Asobu          Asobu na

Yomu           Yomu na

Iku                Iku na

Shinu            Shinu na

Kaku              Kaku na

Suwaru        Suwaru na

Matsu           Matsu na

Deru              Deru na

Oriru             Oriru na

Taberu          Taberu na

Kuru               Kuru na

Suru               Suru na

 

The « TE » form (て形)

 

The TE form is one the most used verbal forms in Japanese. It’s crucial to have a good understanding on how you can make this form with a verb, so you’ll be able to use it in all the other verbal forms which use it.

Basically, verbs are made of three groups :

First group, which have an « i » in the « MASU » form (ます形).

Second group, which have a « e » in the « MASU » form. (some verbs with a « i » are part of this group though).

The third group, which is composed of Suru and Kuru.

First group
This is the most complicated group, as always.

Kakimasu               Kaite

Ikimasu                  Itte

Izogimasu              Isoide

Nomimasu            Nonde

Yobimasu              Yonde

Kaerimasu             Kaette

Kaimasu                 Katte

Machimasu           Matte

Kashimasu             Kashite

As you can see, there is a pattern : Ki becomes -ite, except when the letter before is already a vowel, it becomes -tte. Gi becomes -ide. Mi, Bi, Ri, and Chi becomes –tte. Shi become –shite.

Second group

This group is easier to deal with. Just take the Masu form, take Masu away and add Te.

Tabemasu     Tabete

Nemasu         Nete

Kimemasu     Kimete

Okimasu        Okite

Karimasu       Karite

Mimasu         Mite

Imasu             Ite

You can see in this list the exception to the rules, which have a « I » in the masu form, but are part of the second group.

Third group

Shimasu   Shite

Kimasu     Kite

Note that all the verbs like « Sanpo shimasu » become « Sanpo shite » and so on.

But don’t be fooled by this Te form, as some verbs like Nakushimasu will become Nakushite, but are actually for the First group (the normal form being nakusu).

 

Temporality

 

In Japanese, there are different ways to express that things are happening before, after, or at the same time. Some might seem similar, but they are all expressing a different nuance.

Te Form + kara て形+から

This grammar allows you to express a direct continuity between two actions. One action is done right after the other. This grammar is often used.

For example

Tabete kara nemashita. 食べてから寝ました。I slept after eating.

Shigoto owatte kara kaerimasu.  仕事終わってから帰ります。Once I finish wor, I go home.

-Ta + Ato de た+あとで

This grammar allows you to do the same as the Te form + kara, but with the idea that the second action is done sometime after the first, not right after. You can use it with verb by using the Ta form and with a noun using No + ato de.

For example

Tabeta ato de nemashita. 食べたあとで寝ました。I slept after I ate (not immediately after eating).

Shigoto owaru ato de kaerimasu. 仕事終わったあとで帰ります。When work is finished, I’ll go home (but not right after).

Shokuji no ato de ocha wo nomimasu. 食事のあとでお茶を飲みます。After a meal, I drink some tea.

Toki とき

You can use this grammar to specify something that happens at the same time (a little after or before, depending on the form of the verb). You just add Toki after a verb or an adjective, or No toki after a noun.

For example :

Michi wo wataru toki kuruma ni ki wo tsukemasu. 道を渡るとき車に気を付けます。When crossing the street, watch out for cars.

Uchi he kaeru toki kasa wo kaimasu.  家へ帰るとき傘を買います。When I’ll go back home, I’ll buy a umbrella.

Atama gai tai toki kusuri wo nomimasu.  頭が痛いとき薬を飲みます。When my head hurts, I drink some medicine.

Hima na toki ongaku wo kikimasu. 暇なとき音楽を聞きます。During my free time, I listen music.

Tanjoubi no toki okane wo moraimashita. 誕生日のときお金を貰いました。During my birthday, I received money.

When this grammar is used with the TA form, the meaning changes a little bit : when the verb is in TA form, it describes the first action. So the other action came after the TA form verb.

For example :

Uchi he kaetta toki « tadaima » to iimasu. 家へ帰ったとき「ただいま」と言います。When you get back home (understand : after you get home) you say « tadaima ».

Kaisha he kita toki denki wo tsukemashita. 会社へ来たとき電気を付けました。When I arrived in the office, I turned on the lights.

As you see, the action in TA form is the first to be realized. When the verb is used in normal form, it is the last to be realized.

Mae ni  前に

You can use mae to state that you do something before something.

For example :

Nihon he kita mae ni nihongo wo benkyou shimashita.  日本へ来た前に日本語を勉強しました。

Before I came to Japan, I studied Japanese.

Shokuji no mae ni te wo araimasu. 食事の前に手を洗います。Before the meal, I wash my hands.

Neru mae ni hon wo yomimasu. 寝る前に本を読みます。Before sleeping, I read a book.

 

To Can, to Be Able To

 

There are different ways of expressing the idea that you can or able of doing something.

– koto ga dekiru  (-ことができる)

This form allows you to say that you are able to do something or that something is doable.

Watashi ha oyogu koto ga dekiru.   私は泳ぐことができる。   I can swim.

Koko de densha no kippu wo kau koto ga dekimasu. `ここで電車の切符を買うことができます。 Here, you can buy train tickets.

This is an easy way to express that idea.

The « kanou » form可能形

可能 means doable. So the verbs in this form express that someone or something can be done.

Here again, the verbs of the 3rd groups are different.

1st group

The rule to get to the form of the first group is easy :

You take the hiragana table, and you translate from the –i column to the –e column. You apply the change on the verb, and you have it.

i – ki – shi – chi – ni – hi – mi – i – ri – i

e – ke – se – te – ne – he – me – e – re – e

Hikimasu                         Hikemasu

Oyogimasu                     Oyogemasu

Yomimasu                      Yomemasu

Asobimasu                      Asobemasu

Hashirimasu                   Hashiremasu

Utaimasu                        Utaemasu

Mochimasu                     Motemasu

Naoshimasu                    Naosemasu

2nd group

The rule for these verbs is even easier to apply, but often very complex to pronunciate correctly.

You have to take away the MASU and add RAREMASU.

Tatemasu                          Tateraremasu

Tabemasu                         Taberaremasu

Oboemasu                        Oboeraremasu

Orimasu                             Oriraremasu

3rd group

Shimasu                              Dekimasu

Kimasu                                Koraremasu

Examples of sentences

The Kanou form is always used with the particle GAが

Watashi ha hashi ga tsukaemasu.   私は箸がつかえます。I can use chopsticks.

Nihongo ga sukoshi wakarimasu.   日本語が少し分かります。I understand Japanese a little.

Kanji ga mada yomemasen.   漢字がまだ読めません。I can not yet read the kanji.

Mimasu 見ます and Kikimasu聞きます

These two verbs have two different forms that each has a different meaning.

Mimasu (I see) becomes Miraremasu (I can see) when you are expressing that someone has the possibiliy to see something. The subject is the person seeing, not the object.

Ex : Kare ha kowai eiga ga miraremasu. かれは怖い映画が見られます。  He can watch scary movies.

But Mimasu (I see) becomes Miemasu (It can be seen) when you want to express that someting is visible. The subject is the thing (or person) visible. It doesn’t depend on you if the thing is visible or not. The action is made towards you, not by you.

Ex : Uchi kara fujisan ga miemasu.  家から富士山が見えます。From the house you can see the mount Fuji (litterally « the mount Fuji is visible »).

Watashi ha chiisai ji ga mienai.  私は小さい字が見えません。I can’t see the small letters.

The same goes for Kikimasu.

Ex :  Watashi ha rock ga kikemasu.  私はロクが聞けます。I can listen rock music.

        Neko no koe ga kikoemasen deshita. 猫の声が聞こえませんでした。I couldn’t hear the cat’s voice.

 

How to compare

 

Making a comparison in Japanese is somewhat easy. We will look at three different ways to express a comparison.

A ha B yori

You can use this grammar to compare two things directly.
For example :

America ha nihon yori ookii desu. アメリカは日本より大きいです。The United States is  bigger than Japan.

Kanojo ha kare yori takai desu.  彼女は彼より高いです。She is taller than him.

Nihon kara Tai ha Furansu yori chikai desu. 日本からタイはフランスより近いです。 From Japan, Thailand is closer than France.

No hou ga

You can use this grammar to state that one thing is more xyz than the other.

For example :

Hon to eiga to dochira ga tanoshii desu ka. Eiga no hou ga tanoshii desu.  本と映画とどちらが楽しいですか。映画のほうが楽しいです。Between books and movies, which are more funny ? Movies are funnier.

Kare to kanojo to dochira ga takai desu ka. Kanojo no hou ga takai desu.  彼と彼女とどちらが高いですか。彼女のほうが高いです。Between him and her, who is taller ? She is taller.

Preference

To express a preference, you can use the following grammar : ga ichiban xyz desu.

For example :

Sports de nani ga ichiban omoshiroi desu ka. Basket ball ga ichiban omoshiroi desu.  スポーツで何が一番面白いですか。バスケとバルが一番面白いです。Among the sports, what is the most entertaining ? Basketball is the most entertaining (sports).

To Give and to Receive

 

The way to express you are giving or receiving something in Japanese is a bit more complex than in English.

To give – Agemasu

Agemasu is used to describe the action of giving. The subject is always the person giving.

This verb can be used very simply :

Example: Watashi ha haha ni omiyage wo agemashita. 私は母にお土産をあげました。I gave a souvenir to my mom.

To receive – Moraimasu

Moraimasu is used to describe the action of receiving.

The subject is always the person receiving, and the person giving is used with the –ni particle.

Ex : Watashi ha sensei ni ringo wo moraimashita. 私は先生にりんごを貰いました。I received an apple from the teacher.

To give  – Kuremasu

Kuremasu is used to express the idea that someone give you something, from your point of view.

It differ from Agemasu, as the subject will never be « I » or « Me », but always someone else. Instead, watashi will be used with the –ni particle.

Ex : Kanojo ga watashi ni tokei wo kuremashita. 彼女が私に時計をくれました。She gave me a watch.

 

To Quote in Japanese

 

To quote, in Japanese, you use the following grammar: (what was said) to iimashita. と言いました

The one rule to respect is to use the verb in the (what was said) sentence in the normal form.

For example :

Kare ga ima uchi he kaeritai to iimashita. 彼が今家へ帰りたいと言いました。He said he wants to go back home now.

Kanojo ha keki ga suki to iimasu. 彼女はケーキーが好きと言います。She says she likes cake.

Tomodachi ha kaisha ha taihen da to iimashita. 友達は会社は大変だと言いました。A friend said that he’s having a hard time at his company.

Haha ha kyou kuru to iimashita. 母は今日来ると言いました。My mom said she is coming today.

Chichi ha ashita umi he ikanai to iimasu. 父は明日海へ行かないと言います。My father says he won’t go to the beach tomorow.

Itte imashita 言っていました。

This form of grammar as a slightly diffrente meaning. In fact, it’s use to make a direct quotation, implying you were told a message that you repeat to someone else.

Kachou ha ashita kaisha ha yasumi ni natta to itte imashita. 課長は明日は休みになったと言っていました。The boss said that tomorow will be off.

Ani ha senshu nimotsu wo okutta to itte imashita. 兄は先週荷物を送ったと言っていました。My big brother said that he sent the packages last week.

 

 

To Think

 

In Japanese, to give your point of view or your thought, there is an easy grammar very similar to the one for quoting.

To omoimasuと思います。

You use the verb in its normal form (non polite) and add –to omoimasu. For the i-adjective and na-adjetive, use them also in their normal form.

For example :

Ashita ame ga furu to omoimasu. 明日雨が降ると思います。I think it will rain tomorow.

Kanojo mou kaetta to omoimasu. 彼女もう帰ったと思います。I think she already went back home.

Nihon ha bukka ga takaii to omoimasu. 日本は物価が高いと思います。I think the prices are expensive in Japan.

Kare ha shinsetsu da to omoimasu. 彼は親切だと思います。I think he is kind.

It’s as simple as it is, and you will need this grammar a lot to give your opinion, so practice it.

 

What You Want

 

In Japanese, there are different ways to say you want something or to do something.

Ga hoshii がほしい

This form allows you to express that you want something. It has to be an object or material, with the only exceptions that time and holidays can be used as well.

Hoshii can be used in past tense and negative form like a i-adjective : Hoshikatta , Hoshikunai, Hoshikunakatta.

For example :

Watashi ha atarashii kuruma ga hoshii. 私は新しい車がほしいです。I want a new car.

Watashi ha jikan ga hoshikatta desu. 私は時間がほしいです。I wanted time.

Watashi ha tomodachi ga hoshikunai desu. 私は友達がほしいです。I don’t want friends.

Watashi ha jitensha ga hoshikunakatta desu. 私は自転車がほしくなかったです。I didn’t want a bike.

Rule

Ga hoshii is a grammar that can only be used to describe YOUR feeling. You can not use this grammar to speak about someone else’s feeling.

For example, you can not say : Anata ga hoshii or Kare ga hoshii.

Tai form

This form allows you to change a verb so you can express that it’s what you want, or not, to do.

Take the verb in the MASU form (ikimasu), take the MASU away and add TAI desu (Ikitai desu).
For the opposite, take the TAI form (ikitai), and modify it like you would with an i-adjective, by removing the i and add KUNAI desu (ikitakunai desu). The same goes for past tense.

For example:

Ryokou ni ikitai desu. 旅行にいきたいです。I want to go travelling.

Sushi ga tabetakatta desu. すしが食べたいです。I wanted to eat sushi.

Hatarakitakunai desu. 働きたくないです。I don’t want to work.

Nanimo shitakunakatta desu. なにもしたくないです。I didn’t want to do anything.

 

http://www.digitaldialects.com/Japanese.htm

 

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One Response to “”

  1. エルメス hermes

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